National Testicular Cancer Society
Regular Self-Examination is Key to Early Detection - National Testicular Cancer Awareness Society

Regular Self-Examination is Key to Early Detection

A rugby team in the United Kingdom volunteered for a public service announcement to spread the word about testicular cancern and educate you on how to self-examin or examin your partner.

Hold the giggles this is important.  Just in the United States alone 1 male every hour is diagnosed resulting in 8760 diagnoises a year.  And one male in just the United State dies every day from testicular cancer.

Testicular Cancer – What you Need to know

What is testicular cancer?

Testicular cancer is a cancer that originates in one or both testicles, or testes. Your testes are the male reproductive glands located inside your scrotum, which is the pouch of skin located underneath your penis. Your testes are responsible for producing sperm and the hormone testosterone.

Testicular cancer most often begins with changes in the germ cells. These are the cells in your testicles that produce sperm. These germ cell tumors account for more than 90 percent of testicular cancers.

There are two main types of germ cell tumors:

  • Seminomas are testicular cancers that grow slowly. They’re usually confined to your testes, but your lymph nodes may also be involved.
  • Nonseminomas are the more common form of testicular cancer. This type is faster growing and may spread to other parts of your body.

Testicular cancer can also occur in the tissues that produce hormones. These tumors are called gonadal stromal tumors.

Testicular cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men ages 15 to 35, but it can occur at any age. It’s also one of the most treatable cancers, even if it’s spread to other areas.

According to the American Cancer Society, for those with testicular cancer in early stages, the five-year survival rate is greater than 95 percent.

Risk factors for testicular cancer

Risk factors that can increase your risk of developing testicular cancer include:

  • having a family history of the disease
  • having abnormal testicular development
  • being of Caucasian descent
  • having an undescended testicle, which is called cryptorchidism

Symptoms of testicular cancer

Some men show no symptoms when diagnosed with testicular cancer. When symptoms do appear, they can include:

  • testicular pain or discomfort
  • testicular swelling
  • lower abdominal or back pain
  • enlargement of breast tissue

Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any of these symptoms.

How is testicular cancer diagnosed?

The tests your doctor may use to diagnose testicular cancer may include:

  • a physical exam, which can reveal any testicular abnormalities, such as lumps or swelling
  • an ultrasound to examine the internal structure of the testicles
  • blood tests called tumor marker tests, which may show elevated levels of substances related to testicular cancer, like alpha-fetoprotein or beta-human chorionic gonadotropin

If your doctor suspects cancer, your entire testicle may need to be removed to obtain a tissue sample. This can’t be done when your testicle is still in the scrotum because doing so can cause cancer to spread through the scrotum.

Once the diagnosis has been made, tests such as pelvic and abdominal CT scans will be done to see if the cancer has spread anywhere else. This is called staging.

The stages of testicular cancer are as follows:

  • Stage 1 is limited to the testicle.
  • Stage 2 has spread to lymph nodes in the abdomen.
  • Stage 3 has spread to other parts of the body. This type of cancer commonly spreads to the lungs, liver, brains, and bone.

The cancer is also categorized based on the expected response to treatment. The outlook can be good, intermediate, or poor.

Treating testicular cancer

There are three general categories of treatments used for testicular cancer. Depending on the stage of your cancer, you may be treated with one or more options.


Surgery is used to remove one or both of your testicles and some surrounding lymph nodes to both stage and treat cancer.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. It may be administered externally or internally.

External radiation uses a machine that aims the radiation at the cancerous area. Internal radiation involves the use of radioactive seeds or wires placed into the affected area. This form is often successful in treating seminomas.


Chemotherapy uses medication to kill cancer cells. It’s a systemic treatment, which means it can kill cancer cells that have traveled to other parts of your body. When it’s taken orally or through the veins, it can travel through your bloodstream to kill cancer cells.

In very advanced cases of testicular cancer, high-dose chemotherapy may be followed by a stem cell transplant. Once the chemotherapy has destroyed the cancer cells, the stem cells are administered and develop into healthy blood cells.

Complications of testicular cancer

Though testicular cancer is a highly treatable cancer, it can still spread to other parts of your body. If one or both testicles are removed, your fertility may also be affected. Before treatment begins, ask your doctor about your options for preserving your fertility.


Testicular Cancer Understanding the Different Types

Testicular Cancer – Understanding the Different Types

Testicular cancer can affect men of every age, across the world. But testicular cancer is not just one type of cancer. In fact, there are two main types of testicular cancer: germ cell tumors and stromal cell tumors. Each of these types also have subtypes. In addition, some of those subtypes have their own subtypes, leading to many different types of testicular cancer.

What is testicular cancer?

Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that happens in the testicles, or testes. These make male sex hormones and sperm. Testicles are located inside the scrotum, which is underneath the penis.

Testicular cancer is rare. However, it’s the most common cancer in males between ages 15 and 35. It’s a very treatable type of cancer and may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these treatments.

What are the types of testicular cancer? 

There are two main types of testicular cancer: germ cell tumors and stromal tumors. In addition, both types have subtypes.

Germ cell tumors

Overall, germ cell tumors are the most common type of testicular cancer, accounting for over 90 percent of testicular cancer. There are two main types of germ cell tumors, and you can have one type or a mixed type. Both types occur at about the same rate.

Seminoma germ cell tumors

One type is seminoma germ cell tumors, which grow and spread slowly in most cases. There are two types of seminoma germ cell tumors:

  • Classic seminoma, which account for 95 percent of seminoma germ cell tumors
  • Spermatocytic seminoma, which are more common in older men

Both types of seminoma cell tumors make a type of tumor marker called human chorionic gonadotropin, but no other types of tumor marker. Chemotherapy and/or radiation are usually the best treatments, especially if the cancer has spread, but surgery may also be possible.

Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors

The second type of germ cell tumor is nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. There are four main types, but most people will have more than one type:

  1. Embryonal carcinoma. A rapidly growing and aggressive tumor, which occurs in about 40 percent of nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.
  2. Yolk sac carcinoma. The most common type of testicular tumor in children, but it’s rare in adults. It responds well to chemotherapy.
  3. Choriocarcinoma. A very rare and aggressive type of tumor.
  4. Teratoma. Usually occurs in the mixed type of tumor. It’s usually local, but may spread to nearby lymph nodes. Teratomas are resistant to chemotherapy and radiation, and are best treated with surgery. There are three types of teratoma, including mature teratomas, immature teratomas, and teratomas with somatic type malignancy. This third type is very rare.

Stromal tumors

Stromal tumors make up less than 5 percent of testicular cancers. They develop in tissues around the germ (reproductive) cells in testicles. Most stromal tumors have a good prognosis after surgery.

There are two types of stromal tumors:

  • Leydig cell tumors, which make testosterone
  • Sertoli cell tumors, which are usually benign

What are the symptoms of testicular cancer?

Many symptoms of testicular cancer can also be caused by other conditions, such as an injury or certain infections. Therefore, if you have symptoms, it’s important to talk to your doctor to see if you can rule out any conditions.

Some men may not have symptoms of testicular cancer, even if the cancer starts to spread.

If you do have symptoms, they may include:

  • a lump in your testicle (usually the first symptom)
  • testicle swelling
  • a heavy feeling in your scrotum or lower abdomen
  • aching in your scrotum or lower abdomen
  • pain in your scrotum (not a common symptom)

There are also symptoms that may be a sign of certain types of testicular cancer. These symptoms are all rare and include:

  • Breast swelling or soreness, which can be because of germ cell or leydig cell tumors
  • Early puberty, which can happen with leydig cell tumors

Symptoms of advanced testicular cancer are dependent on where the cancer has spread:

  • lymph nodes: low back pain or stomach pain
  • lungs: shortness of breath, cough, or chest pain
  • brain: headaches or confusion
  • liver: stomach pain

How is testicular cancer diagnosed?

A lump in your testicle is usually the first sign of testicular cancer. Some men discover the lump on their own, while others learn about it during a physical exam at their doctor’s office.

If you have a lump in your testicle, your doctor will do tests to figure out if the lump is cancer. First, they’ll do an ultrasound of your scrotum. This tells them whether the lump is solid or filled with fluid and whether it’s inside or outside the testicle itself.

Then they’ll likely do a blood test to look for tumor markers. These are substances in your blood that may increase if you have cancer.

If these tests indicate that you have cancer, your doctor may recommend surgery to remove your testicle. The testicle will be analyzed to see if it’s cancerous, and if so, what type of cancer you have.

If a cancer diagnosis is confirmed, you might need tests to figure out if the cancer has spread. These include:

  • CT scan in areas testicular cancer often spreads to, such as your pelvis, chest, or abdomen
  • blood tests to see if you still have elevated tumor markers after your testicle was removed

How is testicular cancer treated?

Treatment for testicular cancer depends on several factors, including what stage the cancer is in and your personal preferences, as some treatments can impact fertility.

The first line of treatment for all types of testicular cancer, regardless of type or stage, is removing the affected testicle. If your cancer hasn’t spread, this may be the only treatment you need. Your doctor may also remove nearby lymph nodes if the cancer has spread there.

Radiation is sometimes used for seminoma-type tumors. It uses high-powered beams of energy to kill cancer cells. These beams are targeted at specific areas of your body where there’s cancer. If used on your testicle, radiation therapy may impact fertility.

You may also have chemotherapy as your only treatment or after surgery if your cancer has spread. This type of treatment uses drugs to kill cancer cells throughout your body. Chemotherapy may also lead to infertility.

What is the outlook if you have testicular cancer?

Testicular cancer is considered very treatable in most cases. For all men with testicular cancer, the cure rate is greater than 95 percent.

Even if the cancer has spread, there is an 80 percent overall cure rate. However, different metastase locations have different outlooks, especially in stromal tumors. In patients with stromal tumors, spread to the lung, liver, or bone leads to worse outcomes than spread to distant lymph nodes.

In patients with seminoma, only liver metastases lead to worse outcomes. For all types, the outlook is better if the cancer has only spread to one other area of the body.

The outlook may also depend on the type of testicular cancer. In stage one tumors, germ cell tumors have a better five-year survival rate than stromal tumors. The average cure rates are:

  • all germ cell tumors: 99.7 percent
  • leydig cell tumors: 91 percent
  • sertoli cell tumors: 77 percent


Testicular Cancer Frequently Asked Questions FAQs [Vidoe] - National Testicular Cancer Awareness Society

Testicular Cancer | FAQ [Video]

Dr. Phil Pierorazio from the Brady Urological Institute discusses details about testicular cancer types, risk factors and treatment options available at Johns Hopkins. To learn more, please visit:


  • 0:02 How does testicular cancer develop?
  • 0:15 What are common symptoms of testicular cancer?
  • 0:48 What does the evaluation for testicular cancer involved?
  • 1:15 Are there certain risk factors for this type of cancer?
  • 1:57 What treatment options are available for testicular cancer?
  • 2:29 What are the types of testicular cancer and how are they treated?
  • 3:22 Are there major side effects after an orchiectomy?
  • 3:51 Why should a patient come to Johns Hopkins for treatment of testicular cancer?
Testicle Pain Causes and Treatments

Testicle Pain – Causes and Treatments

Testicles are egg-shaped reproductive organs located in the scrotum. Pain in the testicles can be caused by minor injuries to the area. However, if you’re experiencing pain in the testicle, you need to have your symptoms evaluated.

Pain in the scrotum can be the result of serious conditions like testicular torsion or a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Ignoring the pain may cause irreversible damage to the testicles and scrotum.

Often, problems with the testicles cause abdominal or groin pain before pain in the testicle develops. Unexplained abdominal or groin pain should also be evaluated by your doctor.

What are the common causes of pain in the testicle?

Trauma or injury to the testicles can cause pain, but pain in the testicle is often the result of medical issues that will require treatment. These include:

  • damage to the nerves of the scrotum caused by diabetic neuropathy
  • epididymitis, or inflammation of the testicles, caused by the STI chlamydia
  • gangrene, or the death of tissues, as a result of untreated testicular torsion or trauma
  • a hydrocele, which is characterized by swelling of the scrotum
  • an inguinal hernia
  • kidney stones
  • orchitis, or inflammation of the testicle
  • a spermatocele, or fluid in the testicle
  • an undescended testicle
  • a varicocele, or a group of enlarged veins in the testicle

In some instances, pain in the testicle can be caused by a severe medical condition known as testicular torsion. In this condition, the testicle becomes twisted, cutting off blood supply to the testicle. This can cause damage to the tissue.

Testicular torsion is a medical emergency that must be treated quickly to prevent damage to the testicles. The condition occurs more frequently in males between the ages of 10 and 20.

Pain in the testicle is rarely caused by testicular cancer. Testicular cancer typically causes a lump on the testicles that’s often painless. Your doctor should evaluate any lump that forms on your testicles.

When should you call your doctor?

Call your doctor for an appointment if:

  • you feel a lump on your scrotum
  • you develop a fever
  • your scrotum is red, warm to the touch, or tender
  • you’ve recently been in contact with someone who has the mumps

You should seek emergency medical attention if your testicular pain:

  • is sudden or severe
  • occurs along with nausea or vomiting
  • is caused by an injury that’s painful or if swelling occurs after one hour

How can pain in the testicle be treated?

Pain that doesn’t require medical care can be treated at home using the following measures:

  • Wear an athletic supporter, or cup, to support the scrotum. 
  • Use ice to reduce swelling in the scrotum.
  • Take warm baths.
  • Support your testicles while lying down by placing a rolled towel under your scrotum.
  • Use over-the-counter pain medications like acetaminophen or ibuprofen to reduce pain.

With more severe pain, you’ll need to seek treatment from your doctor. Your doctor will complete a physical exam of your abdomen, groin, and scrotum to determine what’s causing your pain and will also ask you about your current health conditions and any other symptoms.

To accurately diagnose your condition, your doctor may need to order additional tests, including:

  • an ultrasound, which is a type of imaging test, of the testicles and scrotal sac
  • a urinalysis
  • urine cultures
  • an examination of secretions from the prostate, which requires a rectal exam

Once your doctor diagnoses the cause of your pain, they’ll be able to provide treatment. The treatment may include:

  • antibiotics to treat an infection
  • surgery to untwist the testicle if you have testicular torsion
  • a surgical evaluation for potential correction of an undescended testicle
  • pain medications
  • surgery to reduce fluid accumulation in the testicles

What are the complications of testicular pain?

Your doctor can successfully treat most cases of pain in the testicle. An untreated infection such as chlamydia or a serious condition such as testicular torsion may result in permanent damage to your testicles and scrotum.

Damage may affect fertility and reproduction. Testicular torsion that results in gangrene can cause a life-threatening infection that can spread throughout your body.

How can you prevent pain in the testicle?

Not all cases of pain in the testicle can be prevented, but there are some steps you can take to reduce the underlying causes of this pain. These steps include:

  • wearing an athletic supporter to prevent injury to the testicles
  • practicing safe sex, including using a condom, during intercourse
  • examining your testicles once per month to note changes or lumps
  • emptying your bladder completely when you urinate to help prevent urinary tract infections

If you practice these steps and still experience testicular pain, seek medical treatment immediately.


Testicle Lumps - What You Need to Know

Testicle Lumps – What You Need to Know

A testicle lump, or testicular lump, is an abnormal mass that can form in the testicles.

The testicles, or testes, are egg-shaped male reproductive organs that hang below the penis in a sac called the scrotum. Their primary function is to produce sperm and a hormone called testosterone.

A testicular lump is a fairly common condition that can have many different causes. Testicular lumps can occur in men, teenage boys, or younger children. They may be located in one or both of the testicles.

Testicular lumps can be a sign of problems with your testicles. They may be caused by an injury, but they can also indicate a serious underlying medical problem.

Not all lumps indicate the presence of testicular cancer. Most lumps are caused by benign, or noncancerous, conditions. These usually require no treatment.

Still, your doctor should examine any changes in your testicles, especially lumps or swelling.

Symptoms of a testicular lump

Nearly all testicular lumps cause noticeable swelling and changes in the texture of your testicle. Other symptoms vary, depending on the underlying cause of your testicular lump:

  • A varicocele rarely causes symptoms. If it does cause symptoms, the affected testicle may feel heavier than the other testicle, or the lump may feel like a small sac of worms.
  • A hydrocele is painless in infants, but it can cause a feeling of abdominal pressure in older boys and men. It also causes visible swelling of the testicles.
  • Epididymal cysts are also generally painless. In some men, one testicle may feel heavier than normal.
  • An infection may cause pain, swelling, or tenderness in one or both of your testicles. It can also cause fever, nausea, and vomiting.

Though it can occur spontaneously, testicular torsion is a condition that’s typically caused by a scrotal injury. It’s a medical emergency. It can be extremely painful and may involve the following symptoms:

  • a fever
  • frequent urination
  • abdominal pain
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • swelling of your scrotum
  • unusual positioning of a testicle, which may be higher than normal or oddly angled

A lump caused by testicular cancer can produce the following symptoms:

  • a dull ache in your abdomen or groin
  • swelling or tenderness in your breasts
  • heaviness in your scrotum
  • a sudden collection of fluid in your scrotum
  • pain

Types and causes of testicular lumps

There are multiple possible causes of testicular lumps, including injury, birth defects, infection and other factors.


This type of testicular lump is the most common. It occurs in about 15 to 20 percent of men. Enlarged veins in the testicles cause varicoceles. They become more noticeable after puberty, which is when blood flow increases in fully developed testicles.


A buildup of fluid in the testicles causes a hydrocele. This type of testicular lump occurs in at least 5 percent of newborn males. Premature babies have a higher risk of developing a hydrocele.

Epididymal cyst

An epididymal cyst occurs when the long, coiled tube behind the testicles called the epididymis becomes filled with fluid and can’t drain.

If the cyst contains sperm, it’s known as a spermatocele. This form of testicular lump is very common. It most often resolves on its own.

Epididymitis and orchitis

Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis. A bacterial infection often causes it. This includes some sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as gonorrhea or chlamydia.

An infection also causes orchitis, which is an inflammation of the testicle. Bacteria or the mumps virus can cause the infection.

Testicular torsion

Testicular torsion occurs when the testicles become twisted, typically due to an injury or accident. This condition most often occurs in boys between the ages of 13 and 17 years old, but it can affect men of all ages.

This is a medical emergency that requires urgent investigation and possible treatment.


One type of hernia occurs when part of your bowel pokes through your groin and into the scrotum. This can cause your scrotum to become enlarged.

Testicular cancer

Some lumps indicate the growth of testicular cancer. Only a doctor can determine if a lump is cancerous.

Testicular cancer isn’t common overall, but it’s the most common type of cancer among American men between the ages of 15 and 35.

Diagnosing testicular lumps

Your doctor can properly diagnose the cause of a testicular lump. Make an appointment with your doctor if you notice a lump during a self-exam or you’re experiencing the symptoms described above.

If you’re experiencing symptoms of testicular torsion after an injury, go to an emergency room immediately. If it’s left untreated, testicular torsion can cause testicle death and infertility.

Before your appointment, write down any symptoms you’re experiencing and how long you’ve felt them. Tell your doctor if you’ve had any injuries recently. You should also be prepared to talk about your sexual activity.

Your doctor will put on gloves and physically examine your testicles to note their size and positioning and to check for swelling and tenderness.

Most testicular lumps can be diagnosed during a physical examination. However, your doctor may order other tests to confirm the diagnosis.

These tests may include:

  • an ultrasound, which uses sound waves to create an image of your testicles, scrotum, and abdomen
  • a blood test, which involves testing a sample of your blood for the presence of tumor cells, infections, or other signs of problems
  • an STI screening, in which a sample of fluid is collected from your penis with a swab or from urine to be analyzed in a laboratory for gonorrhea and chlamydia
  • a biopsy, which involves removing a small tissue sample from your testicle with specialized equipment and sending the sample to a laboratory for testing

Treatment for testicular lumps

Your treatment plan will vary, depending on the cause of your testicular lump.


Pain from a varicocele usually subsides without treatment. However, your doctor may prescribe pain medication or advise you to use over-the-counter pain relievers.

In cases of recurring episodes of discomfort, you may need surgery to reduce the congestion in your veins.

The surgery may involve tying off the affected veins or diverting blood flow to those veins through other methods. This causes blood to bypass those veins, which eliminates the swelling.


Treatment for a hydrocele lump may also involve surgery, but it most often clears up on its own by age 2. The surgery involves making a small incision in the scrotum to drain excess fluid.

Epididymal cyst

An epididymal cyst doesn’t require treatment unless it causes pain or discomfort. You may need surgery. During this procedure, your surgeon will remove the cyst and seal your scrotum with stitches that usually dissolve within 10 days.

Testicular torsion

Testicular torsion requires immediate surgery to untwist your testicle and restore blood flow. Your testicle can die if you don’t get treatment for the torsion within 6 hours.

If your testicle dies, your doctor will have to remove it surgically.

Epididymitis and orchitis

Your doctor can treat infections in your epididymis or testicles with antibiotics if bacteria are the cause. In the case of an STI, your partner may also need to be treated.


A hernia is often treated with surgery. Your doctor may refer you to a hernia specialist for treatment.

Testicular cancer

Testicular cancer is treated using surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and other methods. Your specific course of treatment will depend on how early your cancer is detected and other factors.

Surgical removal of your testicle may help stop the cancer from spreading to other parts of your body.

What is the outlook?

Your outlook will depend on the underlying cause of your testicular lump.

Most cases of testicular lumps aren’t serious or cancerous. Testicular cancer is rare. It’s also highly treatable, and it’s curable if you find it early.

Whether or not men should do monthly testicle self-exams is a controversial issue. There is no good evidence that a self-exam leads to a reduction of mortality from testicular cancer.

Since it’s difficult to figure out the cause of a testicular lump based on your symptoms alone, it’s important to visit a doctor if you notice any changes. Make an appointment with your doctor if you notice any lumps, swelling, or pain in your testicles.


Groin Pain Causes Symptoms and Treatments

Groin Pain – Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

The groin is an area of your hip between your stomach and thigh. It is located where your abdomen ends and your legs begin. The groin area has five muscles that work together to move your leg. These are called:

  • adductor brevis
  • adductor longus
  • adductor magnus
  • gracilis
  • pectineus

Groin pain is any discomfort in this area. The pain typically results from an injury caused by physical activity, such as sports. A pulled or strained muscle in the groin area is one of the most common injuries among athletes.

What’s causing my groin pain?

Groin pain is a common symptom and can happen to anyone. There are some potential causes of groin pain that are more common than others.

Most common causes

The most common cause of groin pain is a strain of the muscles, ligaments, or tendons in the groin area. This type of injury occurs most often in athletes, as noted in a 2019 study published in the BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine journal.

If you play a contact sport, such as football, rugby, or hockey, it’s likely that you’ve had groin pain at some point.

Another common cause of groin pain is an inguinal hernia. An inguinal hernia occurs when internal tissues of the abdomen push through a weak spot in the groin muscles. This can create a bulging lump in your groin area and cause pain.

Kidney stones (small, hard mineral deposits in the kidneys and bladder) or bone fractures can cause groin pain as well.

Less common causes

The less common disorders and conditions that could cause pain or discomfort in the groin are:

  • intestinal inflammation
  • testicular inflammation
  • enlarged lymph nodes
  • ovarian cysts
  • pinched nerves
  • urinary tract infections (UTIs)
  • osteoarthritis of the hip

Diagnosing groin pain

Most cases of groin pain do not require medical attention. However, you should see a doctor if you experience severe, prolonged pain accompanied by fever or swelling. These symptoms may indicate a more serious condition.

Your doctor will evaluate your symptoms and ask about any recent physical activity. This information will help your doctor diagnose the problem. They will then perform a physical examination of the groin area along with other tests, if necessary.

Hernia test

Your doctor will insert one finger into the scrotum (the sac that contains the testicles) and ask you to cough. Coughing raises the pressure in the abdomen and pushes your intestines into the hernia opening.

X-ray and ultrasound

X-rays and ultrasounds can help your healthcare provider see if a bone fracture, testicular mass, or ovarian cyst is causing the groin pain.

Complete blood count (CBC)

This type of blood test can help determine if an infection is present.

Treatment for groin pain

The treatment for your groin pain will depend on the underlying cause. You can often treat minor strains at home, but more severe groin pain may require medical treatment.

Home Care

If your groin pain is the result of a strain, treatment at home is probably your best option. Resting and taking a break from physical activity for two to three weeks will allow your strain to heal naturally.

Pain medications, including acetaminophen (Tylenol), may be taken to manage your pain and discomfort. Applying ice packs for 20 minutes a few times per day can help as well.

Medical Treatment

If a broken bone or fracture is the cause of your groin pain, surgery may be required to repair the bone. You may also need surgery if an inguinal hernia is the underlying cause of your symptoms

If home care methods do not work for your strain injury, your doctor might prescribe medications that reduce inflammation to help relieve your symptoms. If this does not work and you have recurring strain injuries, they might advise you to go to physical therapy.

Knowing when to contact your doctor

Talk to your doctor about your symptoms if you have moderate to severe pain in your groin or testicles for more than a few days.

Contact your doctor immediately if you:

  • notice physical changes in the testicles, such as lumps or swelling
  • notice blood in your urine
  • experience pain that spreads to your lower back, chest, or abdomen
  • develop a fever or feel nauseous

If you have any of these symptoms with your groin pain, seek emergency medical care.

These symptoms could be signs of a more serious condition, such as a testicular infection, testicular torsion (twisted testicle), or testicular cancer. You should also seek emergency medical care if you have severe testicular pain that occurs suddenly.

Preventing groin pain

There are a few steps that you can take to avoid groin pain.

For athletes, gentle stretching is a way to help prevent injury. Doing a slow, steady warm-up before physical activity can help reduce your risk of a groin injury, especially if you do it consistently.

Maintaining a healthy weight and being careful when lifting heavy objects can help prevent hernias.

Penis and Testicle Exam What to Expect

Penis and Testicle Exam – What to Expect

It’s about more than just the penis

A “penis exam” is more involved than you might think. Doctors know it as a genitourinary (GU) and rectal exam, which involves your:

  • groin
  • penis head (glans) and shaft
  • scrotum and testicles
  • anus and rectum
  • prostate

Let’s go over what’s involved, why you should get it done regularly, what you should look out for during self-exams, and more.

Why is examining your Penis and Testicles important?

Genital exams keep you intimately aware of how the entire area typically looks and feels.

Having a baseline is key to identifying changes as they happen and seeking out appropriate diagnostic tests sooner rather than later.

In many cases, early detection allows your doctor to develop a treatment plan for cysts, growths, and other abnormalities before more serious complications can occur.

What conditions do genital exams screen for?

Genital exams most commonly screen for the following conditions:

  • hernia, when intestines push through muscle into the groin area
  • urinary tract infections (UTIs)
  • benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
  • erectile dysfunction (ED)
  • Peyronie’s disease
  • penile or scrotal tissue damage caused by diabetes or high cholesterol
  • damage to the blood vessels
  • prostate cancer
  • penile cancer
  • testicular cancer

When should you start doing self-exams and getting clinical exams?

If you develop a genital or rectal condition at a young age, your doctor may ask you to start doing genital self-exams.

Otherwise, you probably won’t need to do self-exams until you begin going through puberty.

Your doctor may also start performing genital exams at this time — if they aren’t already — as part of your annual physical.

How do you do a self-exam?

General guidelines suggest:

  1. Make sure your genitals are relaxed. This keeps the tissues loose so that you can easily feel around.
  2. Lightly pinch the top of your scrotum to keep your testicles in place.
  3. Gently move your fingers and thumb along the entire surface of each testicle. Feel for lumps or hard tissue. They can be as small as rice grains or as large as grapes. Don’t worry about that lump on the back of your testicle, though — that’s the epididymis.
  4. Now, gently run your fingers along your penis shaft and head. Look for lesions or tissue damage. Squeeze lightly to check for any lumps, firmness, or tender areas. If you have a foreskin, move it back to look and feel underneath there, too.

No lumps, bumps, or tissue issues? No need to take any action.

Found something new or unexpected? See a doctor as soon as possible.

The earlier you find a potential issue, the less likely you are to experience complications in the long run.

How often should you do a self-exam?

Do a self-exam at least once a month to stay on top of any noticeable changes and become more familiar with your genital area.

The more intimately you know your penis, scrotum, and testicles, the more sensitive you’ll become to slight changes that could be worth reporting to a doctor.

If you’re performing regular self-exams, do you still need to get a clinical exam done?

Yes! Your doctor is trained to recognize numerous signs and symptoms of genital, urinary, and rectal conditions.

Your doctor also has significant training in diagnosing and treating these kinds of conditions.

This means that they can provide immediate recommendations for treatment or refer you to specialists to ensure that you receive any necessary care.

What type of doctor do you see for a clinical exam?

A general practitioner (GP) or primary care physician (PCP) can do physical examinations, which usually include basic genital exams.

If a genital exam isn’t included, request that your GP or PCP do one for you.

If you feel uncomfortable asking for or receiving this exam, talk to a doctor about the self-examination process.

They can ensure that you’re using the correct method to monitor for changes at home.

If needed, your GP or PCP can refer you to a urologist for specialized diagnosis and treatment.

Urologists are specifically trained in penile, testicular, and genital health, so they can offer individualized information about treatment and prevention.

What does a clinical exam consist of?

Depending on your medical history, your doctor may perform one or more of the following exams:

  • Physical exam. Your doctor will ask you questions about your medical history and lifestyle during this exam. They’ll also check your height, weight, and pulse; and examine your entire body, including your genitals, for growths or abnormalities by lightly feeling the genital, groin, and anal areas.
  • Mental health exam. Your doctor will look at your body language and response to social cues, such as eye contact; ask you basic questions about your name, age, and where you live; and use short tests to check your attention span, memory, language, and judgement abilities.
  • Blood and urine (laboratory) tests. Your doctor will take a small sample of your blood using a needle and test tube, and ask you to pee in a small sample cup (in privacy, of course). Some doctors do this on site, but you may be sent to a separate lab facility that can do the testing.
  • Doppler ultrasound imaging. During this test, your doctor will use a lubricating jelly and device called a transducer to send sound waves into your body and return images to a screen. This can help your doctor look closely at any abnormalities and determine if they’re benign, cancerous, or a sign of another condition. This test can also be used to check how well blood flows through your penile arteries and veins.
  • Injection test. Your doctor may recommend this test if you’re experiencing signs of ED. Your doctor will inject a chemical into your penile shaft to induce an erection so that they can examine how hard you get and how long you stay hard.
  • Overnight erection test. Your doctor may recommend this test if you have ED. They’ll give you a ring to slide onto your penis at night. If you wake up to a broken ring, it means you’ve had an erection — and that the underlying ED cause is likely psychological. Some ring tests are digital, so they collect physiological data that can be stored electronically and analyzed later.

Do you need to be erect for a clinical exam?

You don’t, but it may happen unintentionally — and that’s completely normal.

Your penis is full of sensitive nerves and erogenous zones that are meant to help you get erect, so it isn’t unusual for an erection to occur while your doctor is physically examining the area.

Your doctor has probably seen this happen hundreds or thousands of times, so they shouldn’t be fazed.

Will it include a prostate exam?

If you’re age 55 or older, you may already be getting annual prostate exams.

Otherwise, your doctor likely won’t recommend this exam unless they observe unusual symptoms that could be related to your prostate.

A prostate exam is actually composed of two different tests: the digital rectal exam and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) exam. Here’s how they’re done.

Digital rectal exam

  1. You’ll bend over at your waist or lie on your side with your knees up at your chest.
  2. Your doctor will put on lubricated rubber gloves and gently insert a finger into your rectum.
  3. Your doctor will gently press on your prostate to check its size and shape while pressing on your pelvic area with the other hand. It’s totally normal for this to feel a little uncomfortable or to suddenly have the urge to pee.

PSA exam

This is a blood test. Your doctor will take a sample of your blood and send it to a lab to test for PSA.

Here’s what PSA results are read:

  • Normal: less than 4 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL)
  • Intermediate: 4 to 10 ng/mL
  • High: more than 10 ng/mL

The PSA test is somewhat controversial, so your doctor won’t use it to diagnose anything without taking the results of other tests into consideration.

How often should you get a clinical exam?

Get a clinical genital exam at least once a year. Basic genital exams that involve checking your genital appearance and lightly feeling around the area are typically done during routine or annual physicals.

You can request that your doctor do more specific or detailed tests if you’re concerned about any changes you’ve noticed in your genitals.

What happens after a clinical exam?

Your next steps will depend on what, if any, symptoms your doctor observed during the clinical exam.

Here are some possibilities:

  • You’re referred to a urologist or other specialist for specialized testing and diagnosis.
  • You get further testing done to diagnose conditions that may be causing genital abnormalities or growths.
  • You’re prescribed medication that can relieve symptoms of genital abnormalities or dysfunction.
  • You’re referred to a therapist or counselor if the cause of your genital abnormalities is psychological or emotional.

The bottom line

Genital exams are an important part of ensuring your overall health.

You can do self-exams at home, but you should also get formal genital exams done as part of your annual check-up.

Your doctor can diagnose anything new you may have noticed, catch anything that you may not have observed, or use follow-up tests to determine whether these changes indicate an underlying condition.


National Testicular Cancer Awareness Society - Prevention Detection Killer Death Pain in Balls Lumps Self Examin Swollen Testical Young Guy Man boy

Many men ignore testicular cancer symptoms for months

Early detection and treatment of testicular cancer is key to beating the disease, a urology specialist says.

Yet many men who feel something abnormal in a testicle wait a few months before seeing a doctor.

But, when diagnosed while still confined to the testicle, the five-year survival rate for testicular cancer is 99 percent, Dr. Jay Raman, chief of urology at Penn State Medical Center said in a university news release.

“I think part of it is the macho man complex—that everything is fine. Then you add on top of that the fact that it is a sensitive area, and they may have some embarrassment about it,” Raman said.

Men who know about testicular cancer may also be concerned that surgical removal of the testicle is the best way to cure the disease.

“So they wait to see if it gets better on its own. But sometimes they wait and wait, until they’ve waited too long,” Raman said.

About 9,000 new cases of testicular cancer are diagnosed each year in the United States, according to Raman. Risk factors include being white and having a testicle that didn’t descend when younger. Since these risk factors are not preventable, the best thing to do is be aware of the risk and know the symptoms of cancer.

All men should do a testicular self-exam at least every six months, Raman advised.

“What you are feeling for is that both testicles have the same contours—relatively smooth and soft, kind of the consistency of a hard-boiled egg or the palm of your hand,” he said. “If you notice anything firm, or lumps or bumps—something that is different on one side than the other—you should seek medical attention right away.”

Surgery to remove the testicle is the most common treatment. If the cancer is confined to the testicle, exams and blood work may be the only follow-up patients require. If the cancer has spread beyond the testicle, chemotherapy and radiation may be necessary, he explained.

“The most important thing to know is that cure rates are directly tied to how early you find it,” Raman said.

National Testicular Cancer Awareness Society - Detection Prevention Killer Death Pain in Balls Lumps Self Examin Swollen Testical Young Man boy GuyLarge file

Testicular cancer a bigger threat to young men

Testicular cancer occurs most often in young men, and they need to know the signs of the disease, a urologist says.

Testicular cancer is relatively rare—about 9,000 new cases will be diagnosed this year in the United States—but it is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in males aged 15 to 40.

It’s a highly treatable disease, especially when diagnosed early, according to testicular cancer specialist Dr. Aditya Bagrodia, an assistant professor of urology at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas.

“Embarrassment about symptoms and even confusion with sexually transmitted diseases can prevent some young men from seeking medical help when the disease is at its earliest, most curable stage,” Bagrodia said in a medical center news release.

Signs of testicular cancer include: painless swelling or a mass about the size of a pea or marble in a testicle; a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum; a dull ache in the groin or scrotum; and breast tenderness or growth.

Only about 10 percent of patients have pain in the testicles.

If the cancer spreads to other parts of the body, patients may develop back pain, swelling in lymph nodes in the neck, difficulty breathing, chest pain or cough.

Men who are at high risk for testicular cancer should do a monthly self-exam. Risk factors include: family history of testicular cancer; personal history of testicular cancer; undescended testicle at birth, and infertility, Bagrodia explained.

“Diagnosis at an early stage can mean the difference between a straightforward surgical cure and having to potentially undergo chemotherapy, radiation and multiple surgeries,” he added.

National Testicular Cancer Awareness Society CheckYourPackage-org Self Exam

What do you know about testicular cancer?

Compared with other types of cancer, testicular cancer is rare. But testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men in the U.S. between the ages of 15 and 35.

Approximately 9,910 new cases of testicular cancer will be diagnosed in the U.S. in 2022, and 460 people will die from the disease, according to the American Cancer Society.

Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles, which are inside the scrotum, underneath the penis. The testicles produce male sex hormones and sperm for reproduction.

Risk factors for testicular cancer include an undescended testicle; abnormal testicle development; a family history of testicular cancer; and age, with those 15 to 35 most commonly affected. Also, testicular cancer is more common in white men than Black men.

Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer include:

  • A lump or enlargement in either testicle.
  • A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum.
  • A dull ache in the abdomen or groin.
  • A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum.
  • Pain or discomfort in a testicle or the scrotum.
  • Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts.
  • Back pain.

Testicular cancer is treatable, even when cancer has spread beyond the testicle. If you’ve been diagnosed with testicular cancer, your treatment will be based on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, and your overall health and preferences. Treatment can include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy.



  • Over 1,500 riders across Canada will be dressed in their finest atop vintage motorbikes as they raise funds and awareness for men’s health
  • To take place in over 29 cities across Canada including: Toronto, Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Ottawa, Montreal, Halifax
  • More than 100,000 unite in world’s largest 24-hour motorcycle event
  • Over $2.5 million CAD raised through DGR by Canadian riders since 2016

TORONTO, May 20, 2022 /CNW/ – After two years of disruption and social distancing, over 1,500 motorcyclists coast-to-coast from across Canada will join fellow bike enthusiasts around the world on Sunday, May 22nd for the 11th annual Distinguished Gentleman’s Ride (DGR). The global event brings together over 90,000 members of the motorcycle community from over 100 countries and 800 cities worldwide, united in their common goal to raise funds and awareness for Movember, the leading men’s health charity.

DGR Logo (CNW Group/Movember Canada)
DGR Logo (CNW Group/Movember Canada)

For the first time since 2019, riders will once again be dressed in their most eye-catching dapper gear and atop their classic, vintage motorbikes, finally taking to the roads together as a group, no longer having to participate in solo rides due to pandemic restrictions. In Canada, riders across 29 cities will take part including: Bathurst (NB), Berwick (NS), Calgary (AB), Drummondville (QC), Edmonton (AB), Gibsons (BC), Halifax (NS), Hamilton (ON), Kelowna (BC), Kindcardine (ON), Ladysmith (BC), London (ON), Moncton (NB), Montreal (QC), Niagara Falls (ON), Ottawa (ON), Parksville (BC), Pickering (ON), Quebec City (QC), Regina (SK), Rimouski (QC), Shediac (NB), Sherbrooke (QC), Squamish (BC), Toronto (ON), Vancouver (BC), Vernon (BC), Victoria (BC) and Winnipeg (MB).

Since its inception in 2012, DGR has connected over 400,000 riders of classic and vintage style motorcycles and have raised more than $40 million CAD for men’s health, specifically prostate cancer, and men’s mental health. Since 2016, the event has partnered with Movember, which has played a significant role in funding programs that have supported men around the world.

Locally, over $2.5 million CAD has been raised for Movember by Canadian riders since the organization first came on board as DGR’s official charity partner in 2016. Funds raised have gone into projects such as prostate cancer research and support for men’s mental health. In 2021, a portion of the funding was used to support the motorcycling community itself, with over $1 million CAD injected into nine projects selected from ideas crowd-sourced around the world as part of the DGR Social Connections Challenge (DGRSCC). The projects have been rolling out over the last 12-month, with the aim of improving social connectedness, life satisfaction and mental wellbeing among motorcycle riders.

Founder of The Distinguished Gentleman’s Ride, Mark Hawwa comments on the impact the event and Movember are making on men’s health. “Over the last ten years and 11 DGR’s later, we have raised a tremendous amount for men’s health, developing strong community connections and cause-related programs that have helped thousands of men around the world. This year, we have continued to fund our DGR Social Connections Challenge and the Veterans and First Responders Grant, in partnership with Movember. These programs have supported the motorcycling communities within various cities around the world, and have shown support in-kind to the veterans, police, fire, and emergency services who have sacrificed for their communities and countries. We are proud to be able to support them in return.”

Movember CEO, Michelle Terry, discusses the importance of bringing the DGR community together in 2022. “The DGR community has always instinctively understood the importance of having strong social connections as a keyway of maintaining mental wellbeing. Over the last decade, the rides have come to symbolise the desire of the community to stand together and support each other through tough times. After two years of having to ride solo due to pandemic restrictions, we are delighted to see the community able to ride together again, shoulder to shoulder, raising vital funds for men’s health projects.”

This year, DGR is excited to continue its partnership with Triumph Motorcycles, who have offered a one-of-a-kind Spirit of ’59 prize in collaboration with Gibson Guitars. This partnership brings the 1950’s history of cafe racer culture to the 2022 Distinguished Gentleman’s Ride with a unique prize for the event. The 1959 Legends custom edition Les Paul Standard Reissue and Spirit of ’59 Bonneville T120, featuring a host of beautiful hand-detailed custom touches, designed, and applied in Triumph’s factory workshop.

Prize competitions for the 2022 campaign are still open for you to be involved in. To find out more, visit The final date for donations and competitions is Sunday 5th June 2022. The Distinguished Gentleman’s Ride 2023 will return on Sunday May 21st, 2023.

To donate to the Distinguished Gentleman’s Ride visit
Assets (including imagery and video) can be downloaded:


Movember is the leading charity changing the face of men’s health on a global scale. The charity raises funds to deliver innovative, breakthrough research and support programs that enable men to live happier, healthier, and longer lives. Committed to disrupting the status quo, millions have joined the movement, helping fund over 1,250 projects focusing on mental health and suicide prevention, prostate cancer, and testicular cancer.  In addition to tackling key health issues faced by men, Movember is working to encourage men to stay healthy in all areas of their life, with a focus on men staying socially connected and becoming more open to discussing their health and significant moments in their lives. The charity’s vision is to have an everlasting impact on the face of men’s health. To donate or learn more, please visit


The Distinguished Gentleman’s Ride unites classic and vintage style motorcycle riders all over the world to raise funds and awareness for prostate cancer research and men’s mental health. The Distinguished Gentleman’s Ride was founded in Sydney, Australia in 2012 by Mark Hawwa. After inspiration from a photograph featuring classic suits and vintage motorcycles, Mark decided a themed ride would be a great way to combat the often-negative stereotype of motorcyclists and connect the global motorcycling community and to raise funds for a cause important to every rider. For more information, visit


First established in 1902, Triumph Motorcycles celebrated 118 years of motorcycle manufacture in 2020. For more than three decades, Triumph Motorcycles has been based in Hinckley, Leicestershire, and has produced iconic bikes that perfectly blend authentic design, character, charisma, and performance. The Triumph Modern Classic motorcycle family represents the quintessence of The Distinguished Gentleman’s Ride spirit: elegant, iconic, characterful, and built for the ride.

SOURCE Movember Canada

CONTACT: Primary Press contact: Fresh PR, Jo-Anne Stayner,, +1 604-603-0657; Fresh PR – QC Inquiries, Catherine Woron,, +1 514-604-4898

Cryopreservation Equipment Market Report 2022-2028: Growing Acceptance for Regenerative Medicine & Increasing Needs of Biobanking Practices Fueling Demand

Cryopreservation Equipment Market Report 2022-2028: Growing Acceptance for Regenerative Medicine & Increasing Needs of Biobanking Practices Fueling Demand

DUBLIN, July 21, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — The “Cryopreservation Equipment Market Forecast to 2028 – COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis By Type, Cryogen Type, Application, and End User” report has been added to’s offering.

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The cryopreservation equipment market is expected to reach US$ 12,489.84 million by 2028 from US$ 6,358.65 million in 2022; it is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 11.9% from 2022 to 2028.

The factors such as growing acceptance for regenerative medicine and increasing need of biobanking practices are contributing to the market growth. However, the stringent regulatory requirements hinder the cryopreservation equipment market growth.

Cryopreservation is a technique employed to minimize cell damage caused during freezing and storage of biological materials such as tissue, bacteria, fungi, virus, and mammalian cells. Tissues and genetically stable living cells preserved via cryopreservation can be used in research and other biomedical applications. The equipment required for cryopreservation includes cryopreservation systems, cryoware, accessories, and cryogen.

Cryopreservation plays an important part in the field of regenerative medicine as it facilitates stable and secure storage of cells and other related components for a prolonged time. Regenerative medicine enables replacing diseased or damaged cells, tissues, and organs by retrieving their normal function through stem cell therapy.

Owing to the advancements in the medical technology, stem cell therapy is now being considered as an alternative to traditional drug therapies in the treatment of a wide range of chronic diseases, including diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases.

Type Insights

Based on type, the global cryopreservation equipment market is segmented into freezers, sample preparation systems, and accessories. In 2021, the freezers segment held the largest share of the market, and it is expected to register the highest CAGR in the market during 2022-2028. In ultracold freezers, liquid nitrogen is used for the successful preservation of more complex biological structures by virtually seizing all biological activities.

Cryogen Type Insights

Based on cryogen type, the global cryopreservation equipment market is segmented into liquid nitrogen, oxygen, liquid helium, argon, and others. In 2021, the liquid nitrogen segment held the largest share of the market; the market for this segment is further expected to grow at the highest CAGR during 2022-2028. Liquid nitrogen is a nonmechanical method of cells preservation. Large thermos-like containers are used to house either racks or shelves that hold cryogenic vials.

Application Insights

Based on application, the global cryopreservation equipment market is segmented into cord blood stem cells, sperms, semen & testicular tissues, embryos and oocytes, cell and gene therapies, and others. In 2020, the cord blood stem cells segment held the largest share of the market. Moreover, the market for the sperms segment is expected to register the highest CAGR in the market during 2022-2028. In recent years, public cord banking has been promoted over private cord banking. Various centers across the world are performing cord blood stem cell transplantation as a part of the management of genetic, hematologic, immunologic, metabolic, and oncologic disorders, among others, which is bolstering the growth of the market for the public cord banking segment.

End User Insights

Based on end user, the cryopreservation equipment market is segmented into stem cell banks, biotechnology and pharmaceuticals organizations, stem cell research laboratories, and others. The biotechnology and pharmaceuticals organizations segment held the largest market share in 2020, and it is further expected to be the largest shareholder in the market by 2028. Cryopreservation has become an integral part of the manufacturing process of many cellular therapies as it sometimes precedes cell culture (by preserving the starting cellular material before beginning large-scale manufacturing) and generally follows cell expansion.

Key Topics Covered:

1. Introduction

2. Cryopreservation Equipment Market – Key Takeaways

3. Research Methodology

4. Global Cryopreservation Equipment Market – Market Landscape

5. Cryopreservation Equipment Market – Key Market Dynamics
5.1 Market Drivers
5.1.1 Growing Acceptance for Regenerative Medicine
5.1.2 Increasing Needs of Biobanking Practices
5.2 Market Restraints
5.2.1 Stringent Regulatory Requirements
5.3 Market Opportunities
5.3.1 Importance of Cryopreservation for Success of Cell-Based Therapies
5.4 Future Trends
5.4.1 3D Printing to Provide Customizable Probes for Sensing and Monitoring in Cryobiology Applications
5.5 Impact Analysis

6. Cryopreservation Equipment Market- Global Analysis

7. Global Cryopreservation Equipment Market Revenue and Forecasts To 2028- by Type

10. Cryopreservation Equipment Market Revenue and Forecasts To 2028 – End User

11. Cryopreservation Equipment Market Revenue and Forecasts to 2028 – Geographical Analysis

12. Impact Of COVID-19 Pandemic on Cryopreservation Equipment Market

13. Cryopreservation Equipment Market- Industry Landscape

14. Company Profiles

 Companies Mentioned

  • Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.
  • Gold Sim Cellular Science LLC
  • Brooks Automation, Inc
  • Avantor, Inc.
  • Hamilton Company
  • PHC Holdings Corporation
  • Danaher Corporation
  • Cryoport Systems, LLC.
  • Antech Group Inc.
  • Cryofab
  • BioLife Solutions

For more information about this report visit

Media Contact:

Research and Markets
Laura Wood, Senior Manager

For E.S.T Office Hours Call +1-917-300-0470
For U.S./CAN Toll Free Call +1-800-526-8630
For GMT Office Hours Call +353-1-416-8900

U.S. Fax: 646-607-1907
Fax (outside U.S.): +353-1-481-1716


SOURCE Research and Markets

LayDeez Special FCancer Characters

FCancer and 1208 Productions Unveil LayDeez

1208 Productions Continues Pledge to Raise a Quarter Million Dollars with NFTs for FCancer in 2022

LOS ANGELES, Aug. 15, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — FCancer, the 501(c)3 nonprofit dedicated to advancing health equity through early detection and prevention programs and by providing resources to navigate, manage and cope with cancer, and 1208 Productions are excited to announce that they will continue on their mission of pushing the boundaries of NFTs with a goal to raise over $250,000 for the organization in 2022 through exclusive NFT releases. Launching this summer, FCancer x 1208 Productions will be unveiling LayDeez [] a new project for women, led by women in support of breast cancer awareness and research.

LayDeez Special FCancer Characters
LayDeez Special FCancer Characters

How It Started:

Over the last year, the phrase “NFTs” (or Non Fungible Tokens) has become a buzzword amongst design buffs, hypebeasts, tech enthusiasts and aspiring art collectors alike. With the intention of using this trending medium for good, in late 2021 long-time techpreneur Michael Roberts shifted the focus of his successful web development brand 1208 Productions to create NFTs that channel creativity with a positive impact.

Roberts’ first endeavor in the NFT world, Deez Nuts (Official Nuts) was a playful, cheeky approach that served to raise awareness, and ultimately help combat a cause near and dear to his heart, testicular cancer. The first drop sold out over 10,000 pieces in the first two hours, including the rare Deez Nuts x FCancer ‘Nut’ which saw $50,000 donated back to the organization’s critical work. The success of this Robert’s first NFT sale ignited the entrepreneur to officially commit to a goal of raising a quarter million dollars for FCancer by the end of the year. 

LayDeez Special FCancer Characters
LayDeez Special FCancer Characters

Most recently, Deez Nuts partnered with: FCancer once again to launch a digital Arcade and Casino, known as the Nutcade and Nutsino, in which 1208 Productions committed to donating a portion of profits back to the organization’s critical work in advancing health equity through early detection and preventions programs.

“It has been such a wonderful experience working with the Deez Nuts / LayDeez team! Not only are they focused on providing opportunities for women in web3, they’re also focused on using their platform and projects for good. They have already donated 50k to FCancer in 2021 and pledged another 50k this year. We are so excited to grow this relationship and continue making an impact in the Cancer space with the Deez Nuts team!” – Julie Greenbaum Co-Founder FCancer

Women Take the Lead: Working Towards The Quarter Million Dollar Pledge

In celebration of unstoppable feminine forces, 1208 Productions brought in a robust female leadership team to oversee a female focused charitable initiative. This new NFT collection will include special 1 for 1 characters designed in collaboration with FCancer which represent women who have endured a mastectomy to empower, uplift and represent the strength of women at every stage of their cancer journey.

LayDeez has pledged to donate $50,000 of proceeds from this NFT drop to FCancer to help and support those impacted by Breast Cancer and other female related cancer

For more information on upcoming drops, please visit


Techpreneur, Michael Roberts started 1208 Productions 6 years ago to follow his passion and utilize his creativity to build video games. The company’s first mobile game was picked up by both Apple and Google worldwide and eventually gained the attention of some of the top game publishers in the world. One of 1208’s first two mobile games held a #1 game spot on a global level and garnered over 300 million downloads among their portfolio.

In 2021, Roberts transited 1208 Productions out of mobile game development to channel the same creativity with a charitable impact. Over the past year, 1208 Productions has offered technical and creative support to renowned drops including JRNY and NEO Tokyo and has put NFT and Play to Earn Games as their primary focus for the foreseeable future. 1208 Productions is the leading creative force behind Deez Nuts, LayDeez and more. For more information, please visit


FCancer is a 501(c)3 nonprofit in the United States and a registered Canadian charity dedicated to improving health outcomes by providing early detection, prevention, and support programs that advances health equity for individuals and communities affected by cancer. For more information, please visit


Media Contact:

Alyssa Bleakley 


Invitae Corporation - Leading Clinical Experts Across the U.S. Unite to Support Universal Genetic Testing for all Patients with Cancer

Leading Clinical Experts Across the U.S. Unite to Support Universal Genetic Testing for all Patients with Cancer

– Clinicians agree that evidence supports testing benefits for all – 

Invitae's (NVTA) mission is to bring comprehensive genetic information into mainstream medical practice to improve the quality of healthcare for billions of people. (PRNewsFoto/Invitae Corporation)

SAN FRANCISCO, Sept. 15, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — Invitae (NYSE: NVTA), a leading medical genetics company, joined other clinical experts in releasing a new commentary in Journal of Clinical Oncology Precision Oncology, underscoring the importance of universal germline testing for all patients with cancer (solid tumors). The paper reports a meta-analysis of multiple clinical publications supporting universal testing, independent of age, stage, family history or type of cancer. It reports that for cancer types such as pancreatic and ovarian where universal genetic testing is already recommended, 13% and 20% of patients (respectively) have identifiable actionable heritable gene mutations,2. In comparison, the actionable inherited gene mutation rate for patients with other cancer types is similar: breast 11%, endometrial 13%, prostate 14%, kidney 13%, bladder 14%, testicular 13%, colorectal 13%, liver 14%, and stomach 14%.

Furthermore, it reports that between 5-13% of patients with cancer with heritable gene mutations are missed by current restrictive testing guidelines and are unable to benefit from associated precision treatment and clinical trial benefits. First, allowing all patients to receive germline testing, without restrictive guidelines, affords patients access to precision therapies, clinical trials and other risk reducing interventions that can improve outcomes, and even extend overall patient survival1. Second, genetic testing informs surveillance and risk reduction for future cancers in patients already affected by cancer. Third, cascade testing helps alert their family members of an increased risk for cancer, so they too can then take advantage of monitoring and risk reducing interventions. Consistent with the Cancer Moonshot 2.0 and the President’s Cancer Panel report 2022, the expert consensus concludes that current evidence supports the implementation of universal germline genetic testing for all patients with cancer (solid tumors).

“This consensus from nationally recognized, cancer genetics clinical experts reinforces the current guidelines that universal genetic testing be offered in all patients with ovarian and pancreatic cancer and either be offered or considered in all patients with colorectal,” said Ed Esplin, MD, PhD, FACMG, FACP, clinical geneticist at Invitae. “More importantly, this is a call to all guidelines committees, insurer medical policy makers and the President’s Cancer Moonshot Cabinet to make universal genetic testing available to potentially reduce mortality and improve the lives of all patients with cancer.” 

The collaborative commentary included experts from the Carolina Urologic Research CenterCity of HopeDana-Farber Cancer Institute, Mayo Clinic and Invitae

“The PROCLAIM study demonstrates the clinical utility of universal germline genetic testing in patients with prostate cancer. Current NCCN guidelines preclude some prostate cancer patients from receiving germline testing, thus depriving these patients of the potential to receive precision-based therapies and specific clinical trial eligibility, while perpetuating healthcare disparities among historically underrepresented populations. The PROCLAIM data supports universal genetic testing for prostate cancer patients. We should expeditiously eliminate barriers to gene-based precision therapies to optimize patient outcomes and accelerate equitable access to care,” said Neal Shore, MD, urologist and medical director, Carolina Urologic Research Center.

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for nearly 10 million deaths in 2020. 

Worldwide, there were an estimated 18.1 million new cases of cancer in 2018, with one in four men and one in five women developing the disease. In addition, there were 43.8 million persons living with cancer in 2018 who were diagnosed within the last five years.

“The INTERCEPT study has shown the prevalence and clinical utility of germline genetic testing is virtually the same across 14 cancer types, even those cancers not traditionally considered hereditary. This data supports universal genetic testing not only for colorectal cancer, but patients with all cancer types, to potentially improve their treatment and future cancer prevention for them and their family members,” said Jewel Samadder, MD, enterprise co-leader precision/individualized cancer medicine, Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center.

Restrictive guidelines can lead to disparities in cancer care. Offering germline genetic testing to all patients with cancer at diagnosis may help reduce inequities in cancer care by expanding access for all patients to precision therapy or clinical treatment trials.

“The prevalence of pathogenic variants in cancer susceptibility genes for which there are management guidelines is similar among patients with all types of solid tumors, therefore, it does not makes sense that current guidelines only recommend germline genetic testing for all patients with ovarian, pancreatic, and recently, colorectal cancers. This information has the potential to affect the treatment of these individuals’ current cancers. In addition, it has the potential to allow for the prevention or early detection of future cancers in both these patients and their family members,” said Heather Hampel, MS, CGC, professor, Department of Medical Oncology & Therapeutics Research, City of Hope.

About Invitae
Invitae Corporation (NYSE: NVTA) is a leading medical genetics company, whose mission is to bring comprehensive genetic information into mainstream medicine to improve healthcare for billions of people. Invitae’s goal is to aggregate the world’s genetic tests into a single service with higher quality, faster turnaround time and lower prices. For more information, visit the company’s website at

Safe Harbor Statement
This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, including statements relating to the potential benefits of universal genetic testing for all patients with cancer; and that restrictive guidelines can lead to disparities in cancer care. Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially and reported results should not be considered as an indication of future performance. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to: the company’s history of losses; the company’s ability to compete; the company’s failure to manage growth effectively; the company’s need to scale its infrastructure in advance of demand for its tests and to increase demand for its tests; the company’s ability to use rapidly changing genetic data to interpret test results accurately and consistently; security breaches, loss of data and other disruptions; laws and regulations applicable to the company’s business; and the other risks set forth in the company’s filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including the risks set forth in the company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2022. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date hereof, and Invitae Corporation disclaims any obligation to update these forward-looking statements.

Renee Kelley 
(628) 213-3283

SOURCE Invitae Corporation


Caris’ Precision Oncology Alliance Welcomes Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Comprehensive Cancer Center

IU Simon Comprehensive Cancer Center joins Caris’ extensive network of leading cancer institutions committed to utilizing clinical data to advance patient care and outcomes

Caris Life Sciences Logo (PRNewsfoto/Caris Life Sciences)

IRVING, Texas, Sept. 28, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — Caris Life Sciences®(Caris), the leading molecular science and technology company actively developing and delivering innovative solutions to revolutionize healthcare, announced today that Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Comprehensive Cancer Center has joined the Caris Precision Oncology Alliance™ (POA). The POA is a growing network of leading cancer centers across the globe that collaborate to advance precision oncology and biomarker-driven research. POA members work together to establish and optimize standards of care for molecular testing through innovative research focused on predictive and prognostic markers that improve the clinical outcomes for cancer patients.

Established in 1992, the IU Simon Comprehensive Cancer Center is Indiana’s sole National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated comprehensive cancer center. Its nearly 300 researchers conduct all phases of cancer research, from laboratory studies to clinical trials to population-based studies that address environmental and behavioral factors that contribute to cancer.

“We are proud to become a member of the Caris Precision Oncology Alliance,” said Kelvin Lee, M.D., director of the Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Comprehensive Cancer Center. “We are eager to collaborate with many of the nation’s leading cancer centers on precision oncology research as we all work together to improve patient outcomes.”

The IU Simon Comprehensive Cancer Center conducted the ground-breaking work that led to the 95 percent cure rate for testicular cancer and pioneered lifesaving cord blood transplantation. The center has more than 130,000 adult outpatient visits each year, offers more than 300 active clinical trials at any time, and provides training for nearly 2,000 students, residents, and fellows every year.

“We are delighted to welcome IU Simon Comprehensive Cancer Center to the growing Precision Oncology Alliance network,” said Chadi Nabhan, M.D., MBA, FACP, Chairman of the Caris Precision Oncology Alliance. “The research, innovation, and patient-centric care that IU Simon Comprehensive Cancer Center clinicians and researchers lead are aligned with the POA vision of improving the outcomes of all patients affected with cancer. Together, we will be stronger, and do better.”

The Caris Precision Oncology Alliance includes 71 cancer centers and academic institutions. These institutions have early access to the extensive database and artificial intelligence platform within Caris to establish evidence-based standards for cancer profiling and molecular testing in oncology. By leveraging the comprehensive genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic profiling available through Caris molecular profiling, Caris seeks to provide this network with the ability to prioritize therapeutic options and determine which clinical trial opportunities may benefit their patients. POA members are also able to integrate with a growing portfolio of biomarker directed trials sponsored by biopharma. Additionally, as a member of the POA, institutions have access to Caris CODEai™, the most comprehensive data solution in the industry with cancer treatment information and clinical outcomes data for over 275,000 patients covering over 1 million data points per patient.

About Caris Life Sciences

Caris Life Sciences® (Caris) is the leading molecular science and technology company actively developing and delivering innovative solutions to revolutionize healthcare and improve patient outcomes. Through comprehensive molecular profiling (Whole Exome and Whole Transcriptome Sequencing) and the application of advanced artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning algorithms, Caris has created the large-scale clinico-genomic database and cognitive computing needed to analyze and unravel the molecular complexity of disease. This information provides an unmatched resource and the ideal path forward to conduct the basic, fundamental research to accelerate discovery for detection, diagnosis, monitoring, therapy selection and drug development to improve the human condition.

With a primary focus on cancer, Caris’ suite of market-leading molecular profiling offerings assesses DNA, RNA and proteins to reveal a molecular blueprint that helps patients, physicians and researchers better detect, diagnose and treat patients. Caris’ latest advancement is a blood-based, circulating nucleic acids sequencing (cNAS) assay that combines comprehensive molecular analysis (Whole Exome and Whole Transcriptome Sequencing from blood) and serial monitoring – making it the most powerful liquid biopsy assay ever developed.

Headquartered in Irving, Texas, Caris has offices in Phoenix, New York, Denver, Tokyo, Japan and Basel, Switzerland. Caris provides services throughout the U.S., Europe, Asia and other international markets. To learn more, please visit or follow us on Twitter (@CarisLS).

About IU Simon Comprehensive Cancer Center

The Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Comprehensive Cancer Center is Indiana’s only National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center and one of only 53 in the nation. The comprehensive designation recognizes the center’s excellence in basic, clinical, and population research, outstanding educational activities, and effective community outreach program across the state. It is also home to the world’s only healthy breast tissue bank and the Center for Global Oncology and Health Equity, and it serves as the central hub for cancer research and education across Indiana University. To learn more, visit IU Simon Comprehensive Cancer Center.

Caris Life Sciences Media Contact:
Lisa Burgner

IU Simon Comprehensive Cancer Center Media Contact:
Michael Schug
Communications Director

SOURCE Caris Life Sciences


Philips Norelco creates interactive metaverse experience on Roblox

“Shavetopia” will allow Roblox users to purchase facial hairstyles for their online avatars this fall

Philips Norelco

STAMFORD, Conn., Oct. 26, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — Philips Norelco recently launched “Shavetopia” – an interactive hub on Roblox that gives users the ability to choose from a variety of avatar facial hairstyles. This venture on Roblox, a global platform connecting over 50 million people daily through shared immersive experiences, helps extend the men’s grooming brand and important social causes it supports to the metaverse.

Shavetopia 1
Shavetopia 1

Through November 30th, 2022, everyone – regardless of gender identity or ability to grow a moustache – is encouraged to participate in Movember virtually by purchasing one of Movember’s facial hairstyles in the Avatar Marketplace for their Roblox avatar. Users can view and try on facial

hairstyles in Shavetopia before purchasing for their avatars.

“Shavetopia” provides a 3D online space for Roblox visitors to try virtual hairstyles, play mini-games and spend time with friends and family as they try out new looks to embrace a new sense of virtual identity. Each game will feature unique Philips Norelco power-ups, which provide the opportunity for Roblox community members to wear their selected facial hairstyles and gain unique bonuses. Shavetopia has portals to three fan favorite experiences on Roblox: Retail Tycoon 2Emergency Response: Liberty County, and Tower Defense Simulator.

Shavetopia 2
Shavetopia 2

“With our purpose of improving people’s lives at the forefront of everything we do, Philips is taking our philanthropic efforts into exciting new territory by applying that purpose to self-expression and confidence in both the real world and virtual worlds,” said Rafael Viestel da Silva, Philips Grooming and Beauty Marketing Director. “We’re excited to extend our partnership with Movember to Roblox, with shared goals of empowerment and working together for social good.”

Individual expression and appearance are critical pieces of how we express ourselves, and Philips Norelco wants to empower people to express their true selves, both in the physical and digital worlds. Driven by this purpose, is an extension of the partnership with Movember, which began in 2021 to support important men’s health causes.

Philips Norelco OneBlade
Philips Norelco OneBlade

Movember aims to support men’s mental and physical health through research, community outreach and initiatives such as encouraging guys to grow their Mo each November to raise awareness. Any proceeds generated by purchases of facial hairstyles in Shavetopia will go directly to bolster Movember’s work in supporting mental health and suicide prevention, as well as prostate and testicular cancer awareness. In addition to partnering with Movember, Philips Norelco is also partnering with Dr. Jake Taylor, Urologic Oncology Fellow, University of Southwestern Texas Medical Center, to serve as an expert voice in the men’s health space.

“It’s so important for men to take an active role in both their physical and mental health,” said Dr. Jake Taylor. “Even just starting your day with a routine that boosts your confidence, like shaving, can make a big difference for your mental health. That’s why I’m thrilled to partner with an organization like Philips Norelco, who is actively committed to supporting both the physical and mental health for men.”

“We’re thrilled to join forces with Philips Norelco for the second consecutive year. We believe that Shavetopia will help raise awareness for men’s health issues among new audiences,” said Mark Hedstrom, Movember US Country Director. “These virtual facial hairstyles enable more people, regardless of gender or ability to grow facial hair, to show their support for Movember in ways we never thought possible.”

To participate, create an account on Roblox and check out Shavetopia in support of Movember’s efforts to improve men’s health this fall. You can also update your facial hairstyle with Philips Norelco OneBlade, the all-in-one tool that can trim, edge and shave any length of hair, available for purchase at and major retailers.

In addition to creating Shavetopia, Philips Norelco is proud to donate $400,000 to the Movember Foundation, a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization committed to changing the face of men’s health.  In addition, for every Philips Norelco & OneBlade handle sold in CVS and Walmart stores in the United States between October 1, 2022 and December 31, 2022, Philips will donate $0.50, up to $100,000, for a maximum total donation of $500,000.

About Royal Philips

Royal Philips (NYSE: PHG) (AEX: PHIA) is a leading health technology company focused on improving people’s health and well-being, and enabling better outcomes across the health continuum – from healthy living and prevention, to diagnosis, treatment and home care. Philips leverages advanced technology and deep clinical and consumer insights to deliver integrated solutions. Headquartered in the Netherlands, the company is a leader in diagnostic imaging, image-guided therapy, patient monitoring and health informatics, as well as in consumer health and home care. Philips generated 2021 sales of EUR 17.2 billion and employs approximately 78,000 employees with sales and services in more than 100 countries. News about Philips can be found at

About Movember

Movember is the leading charity changing the face of men’s health on a global scale, focusing on mental health and suicide prevention, prostate cancer and testicular cancer. The charity raises funds to deliver innovative, breakthrough research and support programs that enable men to live happier, healthier and longer lives. Committed to disrupting the status quo, millions have joined the movement, helping fund over 1,250 projects around the world. In addition to tackling key health issues faced by men, Movember is working to encourage men to stay healthy in all areas of their life, with a focus on men staying socially connected and becoming more open to discussing their health and significant moments in their lives. The charity’s vision is to have an everlasting impact on the face of men’s health. To donate or learn more, please visit

SOURCE Philips Norelco

CONTACT: Rachel Triller, 802-855-1120,; Anna Stathopoulos, 212-805-8047,

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) – What You Need to Know

Facts about STDs

The term sexually transmitted disease (STD) is used to refer to a condition passed from one person to another through sexual contact. A person can contract an STD by having unprotected vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has an STD. As you’ll see, some STDs can be transmitted through any body contact in the swimsuit area of another.

An STD may also be called a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or venereal disease (VD).

That doesn’t mean sex is the only way STDs are transmitted. Depending on the specific STD, infections may also be transmitted through sharing needles and breastfeeding.

Symptoms of STDs in men

It’s possible to contract an STD without developing symptoms. But some STDs cause obvious symptoms. In men, common symptoms include:

  • pain or discomfort during sex or urination
  • sores, bumps, or rashes on or around the penis, testicles, anus, buttocks, thighs, or mouth
  • unusual discharge or bleeding from the penis
  • painful or swollen testicles

Specific symptoms can vary, depending on the STD.

Symptoms of STDs in women

In many cases, STDs don’t cause noticeable symptoms. When they do, common STD symptoms in women include:

  • pain or discomfort during sex or urination
  • sores, bumps, or rashes on or around the vagina, anus, buttocks, thighs, or mouth
  • unusual discharge or bleeding from the vagina
  • itchiness in or around the vagina

The specific symptoms can vary from one STD to another.

Types of STDs

Many different types of infections can be transmitted sexually. The most common STDs are described below.


A certain type of bacteria causes chlamydia. It’s the most commonly reported STD among Americans, notes the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Many people with chlamydia have no noticeable symptoms. When symptoms do develop, they often include:

  • pain or discomfort during sex or urination
  • green or yellow discharge from the penis or vagina
  • pain in the lower abdomen

If left untreated, chlamydia can lead to:

  • infections of the urethra, prostate gland, or testicles
  • pelvic inflammatory disease
  • infertility

If a pregnant woman has untreated chlamydia, she can pass it to her baby during birth. The baby may develop:

  • pneumonia
  • eye infections
  • blindness

Antibiotics can easily treat chlamydia.

HPV (human papillomavirus)

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that can be passed from one person to another through intimate skin-to-skin or sexual contact. There are many different strains of the virus. Some are more dangerous than others.

The most common symptom of HPV is warts on the genitals, mouth, or throat.

Some strains of HPV infection can lead to cancer, including:

  • oral cancer
  • cervical cancer
  • vulvar cancer
  • penile cancer
  • rectal cancer
  • throat cancer
  • tonsil cancer
  • tongue cancer

While most cases of HPV don’t become cancerous, some strains of the virus are more likely to cause cancer than others. According to the National Cancer Institute, most cases of HPV-related cancer in the United States are caused by HPV 16 and HPV 18. These two strains of HPV account for 70 percent of all cervical cancer cases.

There’s no treatment for HPV. However, HPV infections often clear up on their own. There’s also a vaccine available to protect against some of the most dangerous strains, including HPV 16 and HPV 18.

If a person contracts HPV, proper testing and screenings can help their doctor assess and manage your risk of complications.


Syphilis is another bacterial infection. It often goes unnoticed in its early stages.

The first symptom to appear is a small round sore, known as a chancre. It can develop on your genitals, anus, or mouth. It’s painless but very infectious.

Later symptoms of syphilis can include:

  • rash
  • fatigue
  • fever
  • headaches
  • joint pain
  • weight loss
  • hair loss

If left untreated, late-stage syphilis can lead to:

  • loss of vision
  • loss of hearing
  • loss of memory
  • mental illness
  • infections of the brain or spinal cord
  • heart disease
  • death

Fortunately, if caught early enough, syphilis is easily treated with antibiotics. However, syphilis infection in a newborn can be fatal. That’s why it’s important for all pregnant women to be screened for syphilis.

The earlier syphilis is diagnosed and treated, the less damage it does.


HIV can damage the immune system and raise the risk of contracting other viruses or bacteria and developing certain cancers. If left untreated, it can lead to stage 3 HIV, known as AIDS. But with today’s treatment, many people living with HIV don’t ever develop AIDS. As prevention, men who have sex with men should strongly consider pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

In the early or acute stages, it’s easy to mistake the symptoms of HIV with those of the flu. For example, the early symptoms can include:

  • fever
  • chills
  • aches and pains
  • swollen lymph nodes
  • sore throat
  • headache
  • nausea
  • rashes

These initial symptoms typically clear within a month or so. From that point onward, a person can carry HIV without developing serious or persistent symptoms for many years. Other people may develop nonspecific symptoms, such as:

  • recurrent fatigue
  • fevers
  • headaches
  • stomach issues

There’s no cure for HIV yet, but treatment options are available to manage it. Early and effective treatment can help people with HIV live as long as those without HIV.

Proper treatment can also lower a person’s chances of transmitting HIV to a sexual partner. In fact, treatment can potentially lower the amount of HIV in a person’s body to undetectable levels. At undetectable levels, HIV can’t be transmitted to other people, reports the CDC.

Without routine testing, many people with HIV don’t realize they have it. To promote early diagnosis and treatment, the CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of 13 and 64 is tested at least once. People at high risk of HIV should be tested at least once a year, even if they don’t have symptoms.

Free and confidential testing can be found in all major cities and many public health clinics. A government tool for finding local testing services is available here.

With recent advancements in testing and treatment, it’s possible to live a long and healthy life with HIV. 


Gonorrhea is another common bacterial STD. It’s also known as “the clap.”

Many people with gonorrhea develop no symptoms. But when present, symptoms may include:

  • a white, yellow, beige, or green-colored discharge from the penis or vagina
  • pain or discomfort during sex or urination
  • more frequent urination than usual
  • itching around the genitals
  • sore throat

If left untreated, gonorrhea can lead to:

  • infections of the urethra, prostate gland, or testicles
  • pelvic inflammatory disease
  • infertility

It’s possible for a mother to pass gonorrhea to a newborn during childbirth. When that happens, gonorrhea can cause serious health problems in the baby. That’s why many doctors encourage pregnant women to get tested and treated for potential STDs.

Gonorrhea can usually be treated with antibiotics. 

Pubic lice (‘crabs’)

“Crabs” is another name for pubic lice. They’re tiny insects that can take up residence on your pubic hair. Like head lice and body lice, they feed on human blood.

Common symptoms of pubic lice include:

  • itching around the genitals or anus
  • small pink or red bumps around the genitals or anus
  • low-grade fever
  • lack of energy
  • irritability

A person might also be able to see the lice or their tiny white eggs around the roots of pubic hair. A magnifying glass can help you spot them.

If left untreated, pubic lice can be transmitted to other people through skin-to-skin contact or shared clothing, bedding, or towels. Scratched bites can also become infected. It’s best to treat pubic lice infestations immediately.

If a person has pubic lice, they can use over-the-counter topical treatments and tweezers to remove them from your body. It’s also important to clean your clothes, bedding, towels, and home. 


Trichomoniasis is also known as “trich.” It’s caused by a tiny protozoan organism that can be passed from one person to another through genital contact.

According to the CDC, less than one-third of people with trich develop symptoms. When symptoms do develop, they may include:

  • discharge from the vagina or penis
  • burning or itching around the vagina or penis
  • pain or discomfort during urination or sex
  • frequent urination

In women, trich-related discharge often has an unpleasant or “fishy” smell.

If left untreated, trich can lead to:

  • infections of the urethra
  • pelvic inflammatory disease
  • infertility

Trich can be treated with antibiotics. 


Herpes is the shortened name for the herpes simplex virus (HSV). There are two main strains of the virus, HSV-1 and HSV-2. Both can be transmitted sexually. It’s a very common STD. The CDC estimates more than 1 out of 6 people ages 14 to 49 have herpes in the United States.

HSV-1 primarily causes oral herpes, which is responsible for cold sores. However, HSV-1 can also be passed from one person’s mouth to another person’s genitals during oral sex. When this happens, HSV-1 can cause genital herpes.

HSV-2 primarily causes genital herpes.

The most common symptom of herpes is blistery sores. In the case of genital herpes, these sores develop on or around the genitals. In oral herpes, they develop on or around the mouth.

Herpes sores generally crust over and heal within a few weeks. The first outbreak is usually the most painful. Outbreaks typically become less painful and frequent over time.

If a pregnant woman has herpes, she can potentially pass it to her fetus in the womb or to her newborn infant during childbirth. This so-called congenital herpes can be very dangerous to newborns. That’s why it’s beneficial for pregnant women to become aware of their HSV status.

There’s no cure for herpes yet. But medications are available to help control outbreaks and alleviate the pain of herpes sores. The same medications can also lower your chances of passing herpes to your sexual partner.

Effective treatment and safe sexual practices can help you lead a comfortable life with herpes and protect others from the virus. 

Other STDs

Other, less common STDs include:

  • chancroid
  • lymphogranuloma venereum
  • granuloma inguinale
  • molluscum contagiosum
  • scabies

STDs from oral sex

Vaginal and anal sex aren’t the only way STDs are transmitted. It’s also possible to contract or transmit an STD through oral sex. In other words, STDs can be passed from one person’s genitals to another person’s mouth or throat and vice versa.

Oral STDs aren’t always noticeable. When they do cause symptoms, they often include a sore throat or sores around the mouth or throat. 

Curable STDs

Many STDs are curable. For example, the following STDs can be cured with antibiotics or other treatments:

  • chlamydia
  • syphilis
  • gonorrhea
  • crabs
  • trichomoniasis

Others can’t be cured. For example, the following STDs are currently incurable:

  • HPV
  • HIV
  • herpes

Even if an STD can’t be cured, however, it can still be managed. It’s still important to get an early diagnosis. Treatment options are often available to help alleviate symptoms and lower your chances of transmitting the STD to someone else. 

STDs and pregnancy

It’s possible for pregnant women to transmit STDs to the fetus during pregnancy or newborn during childbirth. In newborns, STDs can cause complications. In some cases, they can be life-threatening.

To help prevent STDs in newborns, doctors often encourage pregnant women to be tested and treated for potential STDs. Your doctor might recommend STD testing even if you don’t have symptoms.

If you test positive for one or more STDs while pregnant, your doctor might prescribe antibiotics, antiviral medications, or other treatments. In some cases, they might encourage you to give birth via a cesarean delivery to lower the risk of transmission during childbirth.

Diagnosis of STDs

In most cases, doctors can’t diagnose STDs based on symptoms alone. If your doctor or other healthcare provider suspects you might have an STD, they’ll likely recommend tests to check.

Depending on your sexual history, your healthcare provider might recommend STD testing even if you don’t have symptoms. This is because STDs don’t cause noticeable symptoms in many cases. But even symptom-free STDs can cause damage or be passed to other people.

Healthcare providers can diagnose most STDs using a urine or blood test. They may also take a swab of your genitals. If you’ve developed any sores, they may take swabs of those, too.

You can get tested for STDs at your doctor’s office or a sexual health clinic.

Home testing kits are also available for some STDs, but they may not always be reliable. Use them with caution. Check to see if the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the testing kit before buying it. There are many online health companies that provide at-home test kits that get sent to professional labs for testing.

It’s important to know that a Pap smear isn’t an STD test. A Pap smear checks for the presence of precancerous cells on the cervix. While it may also be combined with an HPV test, a negative Pap smear doesn’t mean you don’t have any STDs.

If you’ve had any type of sex, it’s a good idea to ask your healthcare provider about STD testing. Some people may benefit from more frequent testing than others. 

Treatment of STDs

The recommended treatment for STDs varies, depending on what STD you have. It’s very important that you and your sexual partner be successfully treated for STDs before resuming sexual activity. Otherwise, you can pass an infection back and forth between you.

Bacterial STDs

Usually, antibiotics can easily treat bacterial infections.

It’s important to take all your antibiotics as prescribed. Continue taking them even if you feel better before you finish taking all of them. Let your doctor know if your symptoms don’t go away or return after you’ve taken all of your prescribed medication.

Viral STDs

Antibiotics can’t treat viral STDs. While most viral infections have no cure, some can clear on their own. And in many cases, treatment options are available to relieve symptoms and reduce the risk of transmission.

For example, medications are available to reduce the frequency and severity of herpes outbreaks. Likewise, treatment can help stop the progression of HIV. Furthermore, antiviral drugs can lower your risk of transmitting HIV to someone else.

Other STDs

Some STDs are caused by neither viruses nor bacteria. Instead, they’re caused by other small organisms. Examples include:

  • pubic lice
  • trichomoniasis
  • scabies

These STDs are usually treatable with oral or topical medications. Ask your doctor or another healthcare provider for more information about your condition and treatment options.

STD prevention

Avoiding sexual contact is the only foolproof way to avoid STDs. But when having vaginal, anal, or oral sex, there are ways to make it safer.

When used properly, condoms provide effective protection against many STDs. For optimal protection, it’s important to use condoms during vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Dental dams can also provide protection during oral sex.

Condoms are generally effective at preventing STDs that spread through fluids, such as semen or blood. But they can’t fully protect against STDs that pass from skin to skin. If a condom doesn’t cover the area of skin with the infection, a person can still contract an STD or pass it to their partner.

Condoms can help protect against not only STDs, but also unwanted pregnancy.

In contrast, many other types of birth control lower the risk of unwanted pregnancy but not STDs. For example, the following forms of birth control don’t protect against STDs:

  • birth control pills
  • birth control shot
  • birth control implants
  • intrauterine devices (IUDs)

Regular STD screening is a good idea for anyone who’s sexually active. It’s particularly important for those with a new partner or multiple partners. Early diagnosis and treatment can help stop the transmission of infections.

Before having sex with a new partner, it’s important to discuss sexual history. Partners should also be screened for STDs by a healthcare professional. Since STDs often have no symptoms, testing is the only way to know for sure if someone has one.

When discussing STD test results, it’s important to ask a partner what they’ve been tested for. Many people assume their doctors have screened them for STDs as part of their regular care, but that’s not always true. need Ask the doctor for specific STD tests to ensure they’re taken.

If a sexual partner tests positive for an STD, it’s important for them to follow their healthcare provider’s recommended treatment plan. You can also ask your doctor about strategies to protect yourself from contracting the STD from your partner. For example, if your partner has HIV, your doctor will likely encourage you to take pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Men who have sex with men should strongly consider pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

If you’re eligible, you and your partner should also consider getting vaccinated for HPV and hepatitis B.

Living with STDs

If a person tests positive for an STD, it’s important that they get treatment as soon as possible.

If they have one STD, it can often increase their chances of contracting another. Some STDs can also lead to severe consequences if left untreated. In rare cases, untreated STDs may even be fatal.

Fortunately, most STDs are highly treatable. In some cases, they can be cured entirely. In other cases, early and effective treatment can help relieve symptoms, lower your risk of complications, and protect sexual partners.

In addition to taking prescribed medications for STDs, a doctor may advise a person to adjust their sexual habits to help protect them and others. For example, they’ll likely advise them to avoid sex altogether until the infection has been effectively treated. When they resume sex, they’ll probably encourage them to use condoms, dental dams, or other forms of protection.

Following a doctor’s recommended treatment and prevention plan can help improve the long-term outlook with STDs.


Genital Herpes Causes Symptoms and Treatments

Genital Herpes – Cause, Symptoms & Treatment

What is genital herpes?

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). This STI causes herpetic sores, which are painful blisters (fluid-filled bumps) that can break open and ooze fluid.

About 16 percent of people between the ages of 14 and 49 years old have this condition.

Causes of genital herpes

Two types of herpes simplex virus cause genital herpes:

  • HSV-1, which usually causes cold sores
  • HSV-2, which usually causes genital herpes

The viruses enter into the body through mucous membranes. The mucous membranes are the thin layers of tissue that line the openings of your body.

They can be found in your nose, mouth, and genitals.

Once the viruses are inside, they incorporate themselves into your cells and then stay in the nerve cells of your pelvis. Viruses tend to multiply or adapt to their environments very easily, which makes treating them difficult.

HSV-1 or HSV-2 can be found in people’s bodily fluids, including:

  • saliva
  • semen
  • vaginal secretions

Recognizing the symptoms of genital herpes

The appearance of blisters is known as an outbreak. A first outbreak will appear as early as 2 days after contracting the virus or as late as 30 days afterward.

General symptoms for those with a penis include blisters on the:

  • penis
  • scrotum
  • buttocks (near or around the anus)

General symptoms for those with a vagina include blisters around or near the:

  • vagina
  • anus
  • buttocks

General symptoms for anyone include the following:

  • Blisters may appear in the mouth and on the lips, face, and anywhere else that came into contact with areas of infection.
  • The area that has contracted the condition often starts to itch, or tingle, before blisters actually appear.
  • The blisters may become ulcerated (open sores) and ooze fluid.
  • A crust may appear over the sores within a week of the outbreak.
  • Your lymph glands may become swollen. Lymph glands fight infection and inflammation in the body.
  • You may have headaches, body aches, and fever.

General symptoms for a baby born with herpes (contracted through a vaginal delivery) may include ulcers on the face, body, and genitals.

Babies who are born with genital herpes can develop very severe complications and experience:

  • blindness
  • brain damage
  • death

It’s very important that you tell your doctor if you contract genital herpes and are pregnant.

They will take precautions to prevent the virus from being transmitted to your baby during delivery, with one likely method being that your baby would be delivered via cesarean rather than a routine vaginal delivery.

Diagnosing genital herpes

Your healthcare provider can typically diagnose a herpes transmission by a visual examination of the herpes sores. Although they aren’t always necessary, your doctor may confirm their diagnosis through laboratory tests.

A blood test can diagnose herpes simplex virus before you experience an outbreak.

Make an appointment with a healthcare provider if you think you’ve been exposed to genital herpes, even if you aren’t experiencing any symptoms yet.

How can genital herpes be treated?

Treatment can reduce the outbreaks, but it can’t cure herpes simplex viruses.


Antiviral drugs may help speed up the healing time of your sores and reduce pain. Medications may be taken at the first signs of an outbreak (tingling, itching, and other symptoms) to help reduce the symptoms.

People who have outbreaks may also be prescribed medications to make it less likely that they’ll get outbreaks in the future.

Home care

Use mild cleansers when bathing or showering in warm water. Keep the affected site clean and dry. Wear loose cotton clothing to keep the area comfortable.

What should I know if I am pregnant and I have genital herpes?

It’s normal to be concerned about the health of your baby when you have any type of STI. Genital herpes can be transmitted to your baby if you have an active outbreak during a vaginal delivery.

It’s important to tell your doctor that you have genital herpes as soon as you know you’re pregnant.

Your doctor will discuss what to expect before, during, and after you deliver your baby. They can prescribe pregnancy-safe treatments to ensure a healthy delivery. They may also opt to deliver your baby via cesarean.

Genital herpes can also cause pregnancy complications such as miscarriage or premature birth.

Long-term outlook for genital herpes

You should practice safer sex and use condoms or another barrier method every time you have sexual contact with someone. This will help prevent genital herpes cases and the transmission of other STIs.

There’s no current cure for genital herpes, but researchers are working on a future cure or vaccine.

The condition can be managed with medication. The disease stays dormant within your body until something triggers an outbreak.

Outbreaks can happen when you become stressed, sick, or tired. Your doctor will help you come up with a treatment plan that will help you manage your outbreaks.


Genital Warts What You Need to Know

Genital Warts – What You Need to Know


  1. Genital warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).
  2. Genital warts affect both women and men.
  3. Genital warts can be treated, but they can come back unless the underlying infection is also treated.

What are genital warts?

Genital warts are soft growths that appear on the genitals. They can cause pain, discomfort, and itching.

Genital warts a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by certain low-risk strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV). These are different from the high-risk strains that can lead to cervical dysplasia and cancer.

HPV is the most common of all STIs. Men and women who are sexually active are vulnerable to complications of HPV, including genital warts. HPV infection is especially dangerous for women because some types of HPV can also cause cancer of the cervix and vulva.

Treatment is key in managing this infection.

What are the symptoms of genital warts?

Genital warts are transmitted through sexual activity, including oral, vaginal, and anal sex. You may not start to develop warts for several weeks or months after infection.

Genital warts aren’t always visible to the human eye. They may be very small and the color of the skin or slightly darker. The top of the growths may resemble a cauliflower and may feel smooth or slightly bumpy to the touch. They may occur as a cluster of warts, or just one wart.

Genital warts on males may appear on the following areas:

  • penis
  • scrotum
  • groin
  • thighs
  • inside or around the anus

For females, these warts may appear:

  • inside of the vagina or anus
  • outside of the vagina or anus
  • on the cervix

Genital warts may also appear on the lips, mouth, tongue, or throat of a person who has had oral sexual contact with a person who has HPV.

Even if you can’t see genital warts, they may still cause symptoms, such as:

  • vaginal discharge
  • itching
  • bleeding
  • burning

If genital warts spread or become enlarged, the condition can be uncomfortable or even painful.

Genital Warts

What causes genital warts?

Most cases of genital warts are caused by HPV. There are 30 to 40 strains of HPV that specifically affect the genitals, but just a few of these strains cause genital warts.

The HPV virus is highly transmittable through skin-to-skin contact, which is why it’s considered an STI.

In fact, HPV is so common that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says that most sexually active people get it at some point.

However, the virus doesn’t always lead to complications such as genital warts. In fact, in most cases, the virus goes away on its own without causing any health problems.

Genital warts are usually caused by strains of HPV that differ from the strains that cause warts on your hands or other parts of the body. A wart can’t spread from someone’s hand to the genitals, and vice versa.

Risk factors for genital warts

Any sexually active person is at risk of getting HPV. However, genital warts are more common for people who:

  • are under the age of 30
  • smoke
  • have a weakened immune system
  • have a history of child abuse
  • are children of a mother who had the virus during childbirth

What are other possible complications of HPV?

HPV infection is the main cause of cancer in the cervix. It can also lead to precancerous changes to the cells of the cervix, which is called dysplasia.

Other types of HPV may also cause cancer of the vulva, which are the external genital organs of women. They can also cause penis, anal, throat, tongue, tonsil, vocal cord, and vaginal cancers. Watch or listen to an in-depth interview with the founder of HPV Global Action discussing the causes, cancers, tests, and vaccination prevention. Vist for more inforation.

How are genital warts diagnosed?

To diagnose this condition, your doctor will ask questions about your health and sexual history. This includes symptoms you’ve experienced and whether you’ve engaged in sex, including oral sex, without condoms or oral dams.

Your doctor will also perform a physical examination of any areas where you suspect warts may be occurring.

For women only

Because warts can occur deep inside a woman’s body, your doctor may need to do a pelvic examination. They may apply a mild acidic solution, which helps to make the warts more visible.

Your doctor may also do a Pap test (also known as a Pap smear), which involves taking a swab of the area to obtain cells from your cervix. These cells can then be tested for the presence of HPV through an additional specific test – only for women. There is no test for persons with penises.

Certain types of HPV may cause abnormal results on a Pap test, which may indicate precancerous changes. If your doctor detects these abnormalities, you may need either more frequent screenings to monitor any changes or a specialized procedure called a colposcopy.

If you’re a woman and concerned that you may have contracted a form of HPV known to cause cervical cancer, your doctor can perform a DNA test. This determines what strain of HPV you have in your system. An HPV test for men isn’t yet available.

How are genital warts treated?

While visible genital warts often go away with time, HPV itself can linger in your skin cells. This means you may have several outbreaks over the course of your life. So managing symptoms is important because you want to avoid transmitting the virus to others. That said, genital warts can be passed on to others even when there are no visible warts or other symptoms.

You may wish to treat genital warts to relieve painful symptoms or to minimize their appearance. However, you can’t treat genital warts with over-the-counter (OTC) wart removers or treatments.

Your doctor may prescribe topical wart treatments that might include:

  • imiquimod (Aldara)
  • podophyllin and podofilox (Condylox)
  • trichloroacetic acid, or TCA

If visible warts don’t go away with time, you may need minor surgery to remove them. Your doctor can also remove the warts through these procedures:

  • electrocautery, or burning warts with electric currents
  • cryosurgery, or freezing warts
  • laser treatments
  • excision, or cutting off warts
  • injections of the drug interferon

Home remedies for genital warts

Don’t use OTC treatments meant for hand warts on genital warts. Hand and genital warts are caused by different strains of HPV, and treatments designed for other areas of the body are often much stronger than treatments used on the genitals. Using the wrong treatments may do more harm than good.

Some home remedies are touted as helpful in treating genital warts, but there is little evidence to support them. Always check with your doctor before trying a home remedy.

How to prevent genital warts

HPV vaccines called Gardasil and Gardasil 9 can protect men and women from the most common HPV strains that cause genital warts, and can also protect against strains of HPV that are linked to cervical cancer.

A vaccine called Cervarix is also available. This vaccine protects against cervical cancer, but not against genital warts.

Individuals up to age 45 years can receive the HPV vaccine, as well as those as young as age 9. The vaccine is administered in a series of two or three shots, depending on age. Both types of vaccine should be given before the person becomes sexually active, as they’re most effective before a person is exposed to HPV.

Coping and outlook

Genital warts are a complication of HPV infection that’s common and treatable. They can disappear over time, but treatment is essential in preventing their return and possible complications.

If you think you have genital warts, talk to your doctor. They can determine if you have warts and what your best treatment options are.

In addition, it’s important to talk to your sexual partner. This may sound difficult, but being open about your condition can help you protect your partner from also getting an HPV infection and genital warts.


Genital Skin Tags What You Need to Know

Genital Skin Tags – What You Need to Know

What is a skin tag?

Skin tags are benign growths that usually appear in areas where your skin has folds. Skin tags are also called acrochordons. They occur in at least 25 percent of adults. These growths are typically brown or beige and are attached to the rest of your skin by a thin stalk. Skin tags are commonly found on eyelids, armpits, neck, and genital areas.

Genital skin tags are benign, but some people want them removed because of how they look. They can also look similar to sexually transmitted infections, like genital warts.

Skin Tag

What are the symptoms of genital skin tags?

Genital skin tags aren’t painful unless they are pulled on or aggravated. Unlike genital warts, which appear flush against your skin, skin tags are connected to your skin by a short stalk.

Skin tags won’t bleed unless you’re trying to remove them, but they may itch. Sometimes they appear in clusters or patterns on your skin. You may not notice a skin tag when it first forms, because often they are the same color or only slightly darker than your natural skin tone.

What causes genital skin tags?

Though the cause of skin tags isn’t clear, researchers believe that irritation from clothing and rubbing against other areas of skin can contribute to their formation. Since your genitals are an area of your body made up of multiple folds of skin, it’s not surprising that skin tags form there. Genital skin tags can’t be transmitted through sex with another person that has them. They aren’t contagious.

In some cases, having a skin tag can be an early indication that you have a metabolic syndrome, such as diabetes. Skin tags are more likely to occur in people that are obese or people with a family history of skin tags.

How are genital skin tags diagnosed?

Whenever you notice a new bump or mark on your genitals, it’s a good idea to see your doctor to confirm what it is. There’s no reason to risk transmitting a sexually transmitted infection to another person, or to live with an STI that could be easily treated. Women should make an appointment with an OB/GYN or general practitioner. Men can make an appointment with their regular doctor, although skin tags on the penis are somewhat rare.

At the appointment, you will be asked some questions about your sexual activity and family history. If you have had a new sexual partner recently, you may be asked if you want to undergo a blood test to check for other STIs. After finding out if there are other risk factors at play, your doctor will leave the room while you get undressed. Upon returning, the doctor will examine the bump to tell you if it’s a benign skin tag or something else that requires further testing. You may also be advised on options to remove the bump if you’re interested.

How are genital skin tags treated?

Some people try to treat skin tags at home using remedies like tea tree oil, baking soda, apple cider vinegar, and castor oil to weaken the stalk of the skin tag. These remedies supposedly weaken the stalk that attaches your skin tag, claiming to make it easier to pull off.

But with genital skin tags, it’s important to be extremely careful with any home remedy that you attempt to use. This is especially true when dealing with the sensitive skin in this area of your body. These remedies have not yet been proven by clinical research. Using a home remedy to get rid of genital skin tags can even result in a chemical burn if it’s not done carefully.

If you want to remove your skin tags, talk with your doctor. A dermatologist, OB/GYN, or general practitioner can remove a skin tag for you in their office. They can apply a local anesthesia so that you don’t feel discomfort during the removal process. Your doctor may use forceps dipped in liquid nitrogen to quickly grasp the stalk of a skin tag and remove it from your body. This procedure is called cryotherapy — removal by freezing. Surgical excision (removal with a scalpel), and cauterization (removal by burning) are also possible treatment methods.

In the case of multiple skin tags, you may be able to get all of them removed at once, or you may have to return to your doctor for a repeat treatment. Having skin tags removed is an outpatient procedure with little to no recovery time required. The risk to you is minimal and the chance of getting an infection is not likely. But the skin tag may appear again in the same place if your skin gets rubbed against or irritated again.

What is the outlook for genital skin tags?

Having a skin tag on your genitals is not a reason for concern. Having multiple skin tags in your genital area can’t hurt you and isn’t a sign of a deeper problem.

It’s a good idea to get your skin tag looked at by a doctor to confirm that it isn’t a symptom of a more serious condition. If your skin tags bother you, having them removed by your doctor is a simple and low-risk elective procedure.


Hydrocele Causes Symptoms and Treatments

Hydrocele – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

What is a hydrocele?

A hydrocele is a sac filled with fluid that forms around a testicle. Hydroceles are most common in babies.

Nearly 10 percent of males are born with a hydrocele. However, they can affect males of any age.

Hydroceles generally don’t pose any threat to the testicles. They’re usually painless and disappear without treatment. However, if you have scrotal swelling, see your doctor to rule out other causes that are more harmful such as testicular cancer.

What causes a hydrocele?

Towards the end of pregnancy, a male child’s testicles descend from his abdomen into the scrotum. The scrotum is the sac of skin that holds the testicles once they descend.

During development, each testicle has a naturally occurring sac around it that contains fluid. Normally, this sac closes itself and the body absorbs the fluid inside during the baby’s first year. However, this doesn’t happen for babies with a hydrocele. Babies born prematurely are at a higher risk for hydrocele, according to the Mayo Clinic.

Hydroceles can also form later in life, mostly in men over 40. This usually occurs if the channel through which the testicles descend hadn’t closed all the way and fluid now enters, or the channel reopens. This can cause fluid to move from the abdomen into the scrotum. Hydroceles can also be caused by inflammation or injury in the scrotum or along the channel. The inflammation may be caused by an infection (epididymitis) or another condition.

Types of hydroceles

The two types of hydroceles are non-communicating and communicating.


A non-communicating hydrocele occurs when the sac closes, but your body doesn’t absorb the fluid. The remaining fluid is typically absorbed into the body within a year.


A communicating hydrocele occurs when the sac surrounding your testicle doesn’t close all the way. This allows fluid to flow in and out.

What are the symptoms of a hydrocele?

Hydroceles usually don’t cause any pain. Usually, the only symptom is a swollen scrotum.

In adult men, there may be a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum. In some cases, the swelling might be worse in the morning than in the evening. It is not usually very painful.

Seek medical treatment if you or your child has sudden or severe pain in their scrotum. This could be the sign of another condition called testicular torsion. Testicular torsion occurs when the testicles become twisted, typically due to an injury or accident. Testicular torsion isn’t common, but it’s a medical emergency because it can lead to blocked blood supply to the testicle and ultimately infertility if untreated. If you think you or your child has testicular torsion, go the hospital emergency room right away or call 911. It needs to be evaluated and treated immediately.

Diagnosis of hydroceles

To diagnose a hydrocele, your doctor will perform a physical exam. If you have a hydrocele, your scrotum will be swollen, but you won’t have any pain. Your doctor won’t be able to feel your testicle well through the fluid-filled sac.

Your doctor may check for tenderness in the scrotum and shine a light through the scrotum. This is called transillumination. It allows your doctor to determine if there’s fluid in the scrotum. If fluid is present, the scrotum will allow light transmission, and the scrotum will appear to light up with the light passing through. However, if scrotal swelling is due to a solid mass (cancer), then the light will not shine through the scrotum. This test does not provide a definite diagnosis but can be very helpful.

Your doctor may also apply pressure to the abdomen to check for another condition called inguinal hernia; your doctor may also ask you to cough or bear down to check for this. This can occur when part of the small intestine protrudes through the groin due to a weak point in the abdominal wall. While it’s usually not life-threatening, a doctor may recommend surgery to repair it.

They may take a blood or urine sample to test for infections. Less commonly, your doctor may administer an ultrasound to check for hernias, tumors, or any other cause of scrotal swelling.

How to treat a hydrocele

If your new infant has a hydrocele, it will probably go away on its own in about a year. If your child’s hydrocele doesn’t go away on its own or becomes very large, he might need surgery by a urologist.

In adults, hydroceles typically go away within six months, according to the Mayo Clinic. A hydrocele usually only needs surgery if it causes discomfort or if it’s a communicating hydrocele, which can lead to hernias.


Surgery to remove a hydrocele is performed under anesthesia. In most cases, you’ll be able to go home within a few hours of the surgery.

A small cut is made in the abdomen or scrotum (depending on the location of the hydrocele) and the hydrocele is surgically removed. Your surgeon will most likely apply a large dressing to the site of your incision. Depending on the location and size, you may also need a drainage tube for a few days.

Risks associated with anesthesia include:

  • allergic reactions
  • breathing difficulties
  • heart rhythm disturbances

Risks associated with this procedure include:

  • blood clots or excessive bleeding
  • scrotal injury, including nerve damage
  • infection

Ice packs, a support strap for your scrotum, and plenty of rest will ease discomfort after the surgery. Your healthcare provider will likely recommend a checkup exam because a hydrocele can sometimes reoccur.

Needle aspiration

Another option for hydrocele treatment is to drain it with a long needle. The needle is inserted into the sac to draw out the fluid. In some cases, a drug may be injected to prevent the sac from filling again. Needle aspiration is commonly performed on men who are at high risk for complications during surgery.

The most common side effects of needle aspiration are temporary pain in your scrotum and the risk of infection.

What to expect after surgery

Whether your hydrocele goes away on its own or requires surgery, the outlook is excellent.

If you have surgery, the pain will probably go away in about a week. Your doctor may prescribe pain medication if you find it necessary. You probably won’t return to normal activities for a few weeks. This includes avoiding anything involving straddling, like riding a bike, for at least three weeks. Other strenuous activities should also be avoided during that time.

Stitches at the incision site usually dissolve on their own, but your doctor may want to check them after a few weeks. Keeping the area clean using showers or sponge baths will help prevent infection.


Spermatocele Causes Symptoms and Treatments

Spermatocele – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

A spermatocele is an often pain-free benign cyst that occurs close to a testicle. It may also be known as a spermatic or epididymal cyst.

The cyst forms in the epididymis. The epididymis is a coiled tube behind each testicle. The cyst is filled with fluid and may contain dead sperm. Read on to learn more about identifying and treating this condition.


Spermatoceles cannot be seen during a visual exam. That’s because they’re contained within the scrotum. They can be felt, however. A spermatocele feels like a smooth, but separate, firm lump. The lump is found near the top of, or behind, a testicle.

Spermatoceles are most likely to be discovered during your yearly physical when your doctor checks for any signs of a testicular growth. Spermatoceles are benign and only appear in the scrotum. That means they’re not a sign of testicular cancer.

If the cyst grows too large, you may feel discomfort or pain in the testicle. You may also experience heaviness, as well as a feeling of fullness in the testicle.

A mass in your scrotum could signal another issue as well. Talk to your doctor about any unexplained lumps in your scrotum. That way they can rule out more serious causes and come up with a treatment plan.

Do spermatoceles cause infertility?

Doctors don’t consider spermatoceles a cause of infertility. It may reduce the quantity and quality of sperm produced if the spermatocele is large, however. If you’ve been trying to conceive for over a year and are concerned about your fertility, talk to your doctor. There are several possible causes for male infertility. The first step is having a semen analysis to determine the health of your semen.


Researchers don’t know what causes spermatoceles. Spermatoceles are neither cancerous nor do they increase your risk of testicular cancer.


A spermatocele can be diagnosed through a detailed examination of the genital area. Your doctor will feel your testicles to search for masses, or areas that are tender or painful to the touch. You can expect to feel some pain when your doctor touches the affected areas.

Your doctor may also do the following tests:

  • Transillumination. By passing a light through the scrotum, your doctor can examine the entire area. Any spermatocele should be clearly seen.
  • Ultrasound. If transillumination isn’t successful, an ultrasound can be used by your doctor to look inside the scrotum to search for a cyst.


Spermatoceles aren’t cancerous and are usually pain-free. Most people won’t need treatment. Instead, your doctor will monitor the cyst during regular doctor appointments.

Spermatoceles may require medical attention if they grow too large or begin to cause pain.

Medical therapy

Medical therapy is limited to oral medications to fight pain and reduce swelling. No drug has been developed to cure or prevent spermatoceles.

Minimally invasive therapies

There are two minimally invasive therapies available, but these are rarely used.

  • Aspiration. Your doctor will use a needle to puncture the spermatocele and then drain the fluid.
  • Sclerotherapy. Your doctor will inject an irritating agent into the cyst. This promotes healing and discourages the fluid from accumulating again.

These therapy options have been shown to work, but they aren’t usually recommended. That’s because there’s a risk that the epididymis may be harmed, leading to fertility problems. Another common problem is that the spermatoceles can come back.

Surgical therapy

Surgical therapy known as spermatocelectomy is the most common treatment for asymptomatic spermatocele. The aim is to remove the cyst from the epididymis while, at the same time, preserve the genital system. This surgery is done as an outpatient procedure. That means you won’t need to stay in a hospital overnight. It may be done with either local or general anesthesia, and it’s usually complete in under an hour.

Sometimes part or even all of the epididymis may need to be removed along with the cyst.


Most people won’t experience any symptoms from a spermatocele. If you do experience pain or discomfort, spermatocelectomy should provide relief, though there is a risk for complications that may affect fertility. It’s also possible that your spermatocele might come back, even after surgery.

Discuss the risks and benefits of treatment options with your doctor, and let them know about any concerns you have, including the effective treatment will have on fertility.


Testicular Atrophy – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

What is testicular atrophy?

Testicular atrophy refers to the shrinking of your testicles, which are the two male reproductive glands located in the scrotum. The scrotum’s main function is to regulate the temperature around the testicles, which it does by shrinking in response to cold temperatures and relaxing in response to warmer temperatures. This can make it feel like your testicles are larger or smaller than usual sometimes.

However, testicular atrophy refers to shrinkage in your actual testicles, not your scrotum. This can be due to several things, including an injury, an underlying condition, or exposure to certain chemicals.

Keep reading to learn more about the possible causes and whether testicular atrophy is reversible.

What are the symptoms?

While the main symptom of testicular atrophy is shrinkage of one or both testicles, several other symptoms can accompany it, depending on your age.

Symptoms before puberty

For people who haven’t gone through puberty, additional symptoms of testicular atrophy include not developing secondary sexual characteristics, such as:

  • facial hair
  • pubic hair
  • larger penis size

Symptoms after puberty

If you’ve gone through puberty, additional symptoms of testicular atrophy can include:

  • decreased sex drive
  • infertility
  • reduced muscle mass
  • absent or reduced facial hair growth
  • absent or reduced pubic hair growth
  • softer testicles

What causes it?


Orchitis refers to inflammation of the testicles. Its main symptoms are pain and swelling in the testicles, but it can also cause nausea and fever. While the swelling can initially make your testicles look larger, orchitis can eventually lead to testicular atrophy.

There are two main types of orchitis:

  • Viral orchitis. This is usually caused by the mumps virus. Up to one-third of men who have the mumps after puberty develop orchitis. This often happens within four to seven days of getting the mumps.
  • Bacterial orchitis. This type of orchitis is often due to a sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as gonorrhea or chlamydia. In some cases, it’s caused by an infection in your urinary tract or from having a catheter or other medical instrument inserted into your penis.

Other causes

In addition to orchitis, several other things can cause testicular atrophy, including:

  • Age. While women go through menopause, some men go through a similar process known as andropause. This causes low testosterone levels, which can lead to testicular atrophy.
  • Varicoceles. A varicocele is like a varicose vein, but located near the testicles instead of the legs. Varicoceles typically affect the left testicle and can damage the sperm-producing tubes within the testicles. This can make the affected testicle smaller.
  • Testicular torsion. This happens when a testicle rotates and twists the spermatic cord, which carries blood to the scrotum. Reduced blood flow can cause pain and swelling in your testicles. If it’s not treated within a few hours, it can cause permanent testicular atrophy.
  • Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). Some men undergoing TRT experience testicular atrophy. This is because TRT can stop the production of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Without GnRH, the pituitary gland stops making luteinizing hormone (LH). Without LH, the testicles stop secreting testosterone, leading to smaller testicles.
  • Anabolic steroid or estrogen use. Taking anabolic steroids or estrogen supplements can cause the same effect on hormones as TRT.
  • Alcohol use disorder. Alcohol can cause both low testosterone and testicular tissue damage, both of which can lead to testicular atrophy.

How is it diagnosed?

To figure out what’s causing your testicular atrophy, your doctor may ask you some questions about your lifestyle and sexual history. This will help them determine whether alcohol or an STI could be the cause.

Next, they’ll likely examine your testicles, checking their size, texture, and firmness. Depending on what they find, they may order some tests, including:

  • a testicular ultrasound
  • a complete blood count
  • a testosterone level test

How is it treated?

Treating testicular atrophy depends on its cause. If it’s due to an STI or other infection, you’ll likely need a round of antibiotics. In other cases, you’ll need to make some lifestyle changes. In rare cases, you may need surgery to treat cases of testicular torsion.

While the conditions that can cause testicular atrophy are usually easy to treat, testicular atrophy itself isn’t always reversible. In many cases, early treatment increases the likelihood of testicular atrophy being reversible. This is especially important if your testicular atrophy is due to testicular torsion. Waiting more than even a few hours to seek treatment can lead to permanent damage.

There’s no proven way to naturally reverse testicular atrophy.

Living with testicular atrophy

Many things can cause your testicles to shrink, from steroid use to STIs. Regardless of the cause, it’s important to talk to your doctor as soon as you start noticing any shrinkage. Early treatment is key for successfully reversing testicular atrophy.


Testicular Torsion Symptoms and Treatment

Testicular Torsion – Symptoms and Treatment

What is testicular torsion?

The most common cause of an emergency related to the male genitourinary tract is a highly painful one called testicular torsion.

Men have two testicles that rest inside the scrotum. A cord known as the spermatic cord carries blood to the testicles. During a torsion of the testes, this cord twists. As a result, blood flow is affected and the tissues in the testicle can start to die.

According to the American Urological Association, this condition is uncommon and affects only about 1 in 4,000 under the age of 25.

Torsion is most common in adolescent males. Those between 12 and 18 years old account for 65 percent of people with the condition, according to Cleveland Clinic. However, infants and older adults can also be affected.

What causes testicular torsion?

Many of those who have testicular torsion are born with a higher risk for the condition, although they may not know it.

Congenital factors

Normally, the testicles can’t move freely inside the scrotum. The surrounding tissue is strong and supportive. Those who experience torsion sometimes have weaker connective tissue in the scrotum.

In some instances, this may be caused by a congenital trait known as a “bell clapper” deformity. If you have a bell clapper deformity, your testicles can move more freely in the scrotum. This movement increases the risk of the spermatic cord becoming twisted. This deformity accounts for 90 percent of testicular torsion cases.

Testicular torsion can run in families, affecting multiple generations as well as siblings. The factors contributing to a higher risk aren’t known, though a bell clapper deformity may contribute. Knowing that others in your family have experienced testicular torsion can help you request emergency treatment immediately if its symptoms affect you or someone in your family.

Not everyone who experiences this condition has a genetic predisposition to it, however. Approximately 10 percent of those with testicular torsion have a family history of the condition, according to one small study.

Other causes

The condition can occur at any time, even before birth. Testicular torsion can occur when you’re sleeping or engaging in physical activity.

It can also occur after an injury to the groin, such as a sports injury. As a preventive step, you can wear a cup for contact sports.

Rapid growth of the testicles during puberty may also cause the condition.

What are the symptoms of testicular torsion?

Pain and swelling of the scrotal sac are the main symptoms of testicular torsion.

The onset of pain may be quite sudden, and the pain can be severe. Swelling may be limited to just one side, or it can occur in the entire scrotum. You may notice that one testicle is higher than the other.

You may also experience:

  • dizziness
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • lumps in the scrotal sac
  • blood in the semen

There are other potential causes of severe testicular pain, such as the inflammatory condition epididymitis. You should still take these symptoms seriously and seek emergency treatment.

Testicular torsion usually occurs in only one testicle. Bilateral torsion, when both testes are simultaneously affected, is extremely rare.

How is testicular torsion diagnosed?

Tests that can be used to diagnose torsion include:

  • urine tests, which look for infection
  • physical exams
  • imaging of the scrotum

During a physical exam, your doctor will check your scrotum for swelling. They may also pinch the inside of your thigh. Normally this causes the testicles to contract. However, this reflex may disappear if you have torsion.

You might also receive an ultrasound of your scrotum. This shows blood flow to the testicles. If blood flow is lower than normal, you may be experiencing torsion.

What treatments are available for testicular torsion?

Torsion of the testes is a medical emergency, but many adolescents are hesitant to say that they’re hurting or seek treatment right away. You should never ignore sharp testicular pain.

It’s possible for some to experience what’s known as intermittent torsion. This causes a testicle to twist and untwist. Because the condition is likely to recur, it’s important to seek treatment, even if the pain becomes sharp and then subsides.

Surgical repair

Surgical repair, or orchiopexy, is usually required to treat testicular torsion. In rare cases, your doctor may be able to untwist the spermatic cord by hand. This procedure is called “manual detorsion.”

Surgery is performed as quickly as possible to restore blood flow to the testicles. If blood flow is cut off for more than six hours, testicular tissue can die. The affected testicle would then need to be removed.

Surgical detorsion is performed under general anesthesia. You’ll be asleep and unaware of the procedure.

Your doctor will make a small incision in your scrotum and untwist the cord. Tiny sutures will be used to keep the testicle in place in the scrotum. This prevents the rotation from occurring again. The surgeon then closes the incision with stitches.

What’s involved in the recovery from testicular torsion surgery?

Orchiopexy doesn’t typically require an overnight stay in the hospital. You’ll stay in a recovery room for several hours prior to discharge.

As with any surgical procedure, you may have discomfort after surgery. Your doctor will recommend or prescribe the most appropriate pain medication. If your testicle needs to be removed, you’ll most likely stay in the hospital overnight.

Pain relief

Your doctor will most likely use dissolvable stitches for your procedure, so you won’t need to have them removed. After surgery, you can expect your scrotum to be swollen for two to four weeks.

You can use an ice pack several times a day for 10 to 20 minutes. This wll help to reduce swelling.


The incision made during surgery may also ooze fluid for one to two days. Make sure to keep the area clean by washing gently with warm, soapy water.

Rest and recovery

Your doctor will recommend refraining from certain types of activities for several weeks following surgery. These include sexual activity and stimulation, such as masturbation and intercourse.

You’ll also be advised to avoid athletic or strenuous activities. During this time, it’s also important to refrain from heavy lifting or straining during bowel movements.

Make sure to get plenty of rest to allow your body to fully recover. Don’t remain completely sedentary, however. Walking a little bit each day will help increase blood flow to the area, supporting recovery.

What complications are associated with testicular torsion?

Testicular torsion is an emergency requiring immediate care. When not treated quickly, or at all, this condition can result in severe complications.


If a dead or severely damaged testicle tissue isn’t removed, gangrene may occur. Gangrene is a potentially life-threatening infection. It can spread rapidly throughout your body, leading to shock.


If damage occurs to both testicles, infertility will result. If you experience the loss of one testicle, however, your fertility shouldn’t be affected.

Cosmetic deformity

The loss of one testicle can create a cosmetic deformity that may cause emotional upset. This can, however, be addressed with the insertion of a testicular prosthesis.


Untreated testicular torsion can result in testicular atrophy, causing the testicle to shrink significantly in size. An atrophied testicle can become unable to produce sperm.

Testicular death

If left untreated for more than several hours, the testicle may become severely damaged, requiring its removal. The testicle can usually be saved if it’s treated within a four-to-six-hour window.

After a period of 12 hours, there’s a 50 percent chance of saving the testicle. After 24 hours, the chances of saving the testicle drop to 10 percent.

What conditions may resemble testicular torsion?

Other conditions affecting the testicles may cause symptoms similar to those of testicular torsion.

No matter which of those conditions you think you may have, it’s important to see your doctor immediately. They can rule out testicular torsion or help you obtain any necessary treatment.


This condition is typically caused by a bacterial infection, including sexually transmitted infections such as chlamydia and gonorrhea.

Symptoms of epididymitis tend to come on gradually and may include:

  • testicular pain
  • painful urination
  • redness
  • swelling


Orchitis causes inflammation and pain in one or both testicles as well as the groin.

It can be caused by either a bacterial or a viral infection. It’s often associated with the mumps.

Torsion of the appendix testis

The appendix testis is a small piece of normal tissue located at the top of the testis. It serves no function. If this tissue twists, it can cause symptoms similar to testicular torsion, such as pain, redness, and swelling.

This condition doesn’t require surgery. Instead, a doctor will observe your condition. They’ll also recommend rest and pain medication.

What is the long-term outlook for people with testicular torsion?

According to TeensHealth, 90 percent of people treated for testicular torsion within four to six hours of the onset of pain don’t ultimately require testicle removal.

However, if treatment is delivered 24 hours or more after the pain starts, an estimated 90 percent do require surgical removal of the testicle.

Removal of a testicle, called orchiectomy, can affect hormone production in infants. It may also affect future fertility by lowering sperm count.

If your body begins to make anti-sperm antibodies because of torsion, this can also lower sperm’s ability to move.

To avoid these possible complications, you should seek emergency medical attention right away if you suspect that you or your child are experiencing testicular torsion. Testicular torsion surgery is highly effective if the condition is caught early.


Undescended Testicle Causes, Effects & Treatment

Undescended Testicle – Causes, Effects & Treatments

Testicles are male sex organs that are responsible for producing sperm and hormones. Typically, they form in a male’s abdomen and descend into his scrotum during fetal development. If one or both of your child’s testicles remain in his abdomen, it’s known as an undescended testicle.

This common condition typically resolves on its own within the first few months of life. However, surgery may be necessary in some instances.

The medical term for an undescended testicle is “cryptorchidism.”

What Causes an Undescended Testicle?

The exact cause of an undescended testicle isn’t known. However, researchers believe that a combination of certain factors likely plays a role. These include genetics, the mother’s health, and environmental factors, such as exposure to pesticides or secondhand smoke.

Doctors consider premature birth to be a major contributing risk factor for an undescended testicle. Nearly one-third of premature baby boys have the condition, reports the Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital. An estimated 3 to 5 percent of male babies have it.

Excess fibrous tissue or muscles that won’t stretch in your child’s groin can cause an undescended testicle. A surgeon can correct these issues.

What Are the Effects of an Undescended Testicle?

An undescended testicle can affect a man’s fertility if left untreated. The higher temperature inside his body can affect his testicle’s development and sperm production. Men with two undescended testicles are more likely to experience fertility-related issues than men with only one undescended testicle.

Men with an undescended testicle are more likely to develop an inguinal hernia. This causes their intestine to push out through a weakened area in their abdominal wall. Only surgery can correct this painful condition.

Undescended testicles are also a risk factor for testicular cancer, even when they’re corrected. This is true for both the descended and undescended testicle.

How Is an Undescended Testicle Diagnosed?

Your child’s doctor may be able to palpate or feel his undescended testicle in his abdomen. In other cases, the testicle can’t be felt. In some cases, the testicle isn’t present at all.

An X-ray or ultrasound imaging test may help your child’s doctor diagnose an undescended testicle. Imaging scans, including an MRI with contrast dye, can confirm the presence or absence of his testicle.

Two conditions can mimic an undescended testicle. A retractile testicle is one that moves back and forth between your child’s groin and his scrotum. This condition typically subsides as your child ages. An ascending testicle is one that returns to your child’s groin and can’t be easily guided back.

How Is the Condition Treated?

The outlook for children with an undescended testicle is very good. Your child’s undescended testicle will typically come down on its own by the time he reaches 6 months old. His doctor will probably perform a physical examination at that time. They may recommend testing if your child’s testicle hasn’t descended.

Hormones that stimulate testosterone production may be used to cause your child’s testicle to descend. This involves injecting a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). According to research published in American Family Physician, this treatment method has about a 20 percent success rate. It’s not as effective as surgery. It can potentially lead to early puberty.

Your child may need surgery if his testicle hasn’t descended by age 1. The surgery is called “orchiopexy.” It’s usually done as an outpatient procedure. Your child’s surgeon will make a small incision in his groin to allow his testicle to descend to an appropriate position. Recovery typically takes about one week.

Extra tissue may keep your child’s testicle from descending. Your child’s surgeon can remove the excess tissue if this is the case. In other cases, your child may need surgery to stretch the ligament that holds his testicle. This helps his testicle descend into a normal position.

In some cases, the testicle is poorly developed or contains abnormal tissue or tissue that isn’t viable. If this is the case, your child’s surgeon will completely remove this testicular tissue.

If your child reaches adulthood without having his condition treated and he then sees a surgeon, the surgeon will probably recommend removing his testicle. At that point, his testicle is unlikely to produce sperm.


Living With One Testicle FAQs

Living With One Testicle – FAQs

Most people with a penis have two testicles in their scrotum — but some only have one. This is known as monorchism.

Monorchism can be the result of several things. Some people are simply born with just one testicle, while others have one removed for medical reasons.

Read on to learn how having one testicle can impact your fertility, sex drive, and more.

Why does it happen?

Having one testicle is usually the result of an issue during fetal development or surgery.

Undescended testicle

During late fetal development or shortly after birth, testicles descend from the abdomen into the scrotum. But sometimes, one testicle doesn’t drop into the scrotum. This is called an undescended testicle or cryptorchidism.

If the undescended testicle isn’t found or doesn’t descend, it will gradually shrink.

Surgical removal

The procedure to remove a testicle is called orchidectomy.

It’s done for a range of reasons, including:

  • Cancer. If you’re diagnosed with testicular cancer, prostate cancer, or breast cancer, removing a testicle may be part of treatment.
  • Undescended testicle. If you have an undescended testicle that wasn’t found when you were younger, you may need to have it surgically removed.
  • Injury. Injuries to your scrotum can damage one or both of your testicles. If one or both become nonfunctional, you may need surgery.
  • Infection. If you have a serious viral or bacterial infection affecting one or both of your testicles, you may need and orchiectomy if antibiotics don’t do the trick.

Testicular regression syndrome

In some cases, an undescended testicle may be the result of testicular regression syndrome. This condition is also known as vanishing testes syndrome.

It involves the “disappearance” of one or both testicles shortly before or after birth. Before birth, the fetus might appear to have two testicles, but they eventually wither away.

Will it affect my sex life?

Usually not. Many people with one testicle have a healthy and active sex life.

A single testicle can produce enough testosterone to fuel your sex drive. This amount of testosterone is also enough for you to get an erection and ejaculate during an orgasm.

However, if you recently lost a testicle, your healthcare provider can give you a some more detailed guidance on what to expect. It may take a bit of time for things to get back to normal.

Can I still have children?

Yes, in most cases, people with one testicle can get someone pregnant. Remember, one testicle can provide enough testosterone for you to get an erection and ejaculate. This is also enough to produce adequate sperm for fertilization.

As long as you’re in good health and don’t have any underlying conditions that could impact your fertility, you should be able to have children.

If you have one testicle and seem to be having fertility issues, consider following up with a healthcare professional. They can do some quick tests using a sperm sample to check for any issues.

Is it linked to any health risks?

Having just one testicle is rarely a risk factor for other health conditions. However, it can lead to some health complications.

These include:

  • Testicular cancer. People with an undescended testicle have an increased risk of this type of cancer. The cancer can occur on the undescended testicle or the descended one.
  • Subfertility. In rare cases, having one testicle can reduce your fertility. Still, this doesn’t mean you can’t have children. You may just have to be a bit more strategic about your approach.
  • Hernias. If you have an undescended testicle that hasn’t been removed, it may lead to a hernia in the tissue around your groin that requires surgical treatment.

The bottom line

Several human organs come in pairs — think about your kidneys and lungs. Usually, people can live with just one of these organs while maintaining a healthy, normal life. Testicles are no different.

But it’s still important to regularly follow up with a doctor, especially if you have an undescended testicle. This will help to catch any complications, such as testicular cancer, early on, when they’re easier to treat.

While having one testicle is unlikely to have an impact on your health, it can affect your self-esteem, especially in sexual relationships.

If you feel self-conscious about it, consider a few sessions with a therapist. They can help you work through these feelings and give you tools to help you navigate sexual relationships.


Varicocele What is it Symptoms and Treatments

Varicocele – What is it? Symptoms and Treatment

The scrotum is a skin-covered sac that holds your testicles. It also contains the arteries and veins that deliver blood to the reproductive glands. A vein abnormality in the scrotum may result in a varicocele.A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins within the scrotum. These veins are called the pampiniform plexus.

A varicocele only occurs in the scrotum and is very similar to varicose veins that can occur in the leg. A varicocele can result in decreased sperm production and quality, which in some cases can lead to infertility. It can also shrink the testicles.

Varicoceles are common. They can be found in 15 percent of the adult male population and around 20 percent of adolescent males. They’re more common in males aged 15 to 25.

Varicoceles generally form during puberty and are more commonly found on the left side of your scrotum. The anatomy of the right and left side of your scrotum isn’t the same. Varicoceles can exist on both sides, but it’s extremely rare. Not all varicoceles affect sperm production.

What causes a varicocele to develop?

spermatic cord holds up each testicle. The cords also contain the veins, arteries, and nerves that support these glands. In healthy veins inside the scrotum, one-way valves move the blood from the testicles to the scrotum, and then they send it back to the heart.

Sometimes the blood doesn’t move through the veins like it should and begins to pool in the vein, causing it to enlarge. A varicocele develops slowly over time.

There are no established risk factors for developing a varicocele, and the exact cause is unclear.

Recognizing the symptoms of a varicocele

You may have no symptoms associated with a varicocele. However, you might experience:

  • a lump in one of your testicles
  • swelling in your scrotum
  • visibly enlarged or twisted veins in your scrotum, which are often described as looking like a bag of worms
  • a dull, recurring pain in your scrotum

Possible complications

This condition can have an effect on fertility. Varicocele is present in 35 to 44 percent of men with primary infertility and in 45 to 81 percent of men with secondary infertility.

Primary infertility is generally used to refer to a couple that hasn’t conceived a child after at least one year of trying. Secondary infertilitydescribes couples that have conceived at least once but aren’t able to again.

How is a varicocele diagnosed?

Your doctor usually diagnoses the condition after a physical exam. A varicocele can’t always be felt or seen when you’re lying down. Your doctor will most likely examine your testicles while you’re standing up and lying down.

Your doctor may need to perform a scrotal ultrasound. This helps measure the spermatic veins and allows your doctor to get a detailed, accurate picture of the condition.

Once the varicocele is diagnosed, your doctor will classify it with one of three clinical grades. They’re labeled grades 1 through 3, according to the size of the lump in your testicle. Grade 1 is the smallest and grade 3 the largest.

The size doesn’t necessarily affect the overall treatment because you may not require treatment. Treatment options are based on the degree of discomfort or infertility issues you have.

Methods of treatment for varicoceles

It’s not always necessary to treat a varicocele. However, you may want to consider treatment if the varicocele:

  • causes pain
  • causes testicular atrophy
  • causes infertility

You may also want to consider treatment if you’re thinking about assisted reproductive techniques.

This condition can cause problems with testicular functioning in some people. The earlier you start treatment, the better your chances of improving sperm production.

Wearing tight underwear or a jockstrap can sometimes provide you with the support that alleviates pain or discomfort. Additional treatment, such as varicocelectomy and varicocele embolization, might be necessary if your symptoms get worse.


A varicocelectomy is a same-day surgery that’s done in a hospital. A urologist will go in through your abdomen or pelvis and clamp or tie off the abnormal veins. Blood can then flow around the abnormal veins to the normal ones. Talk with your doctor about how to prepare for the surgery and what to expect after the operation.

Varicocele embolization

Varicocele embolization is a less invasive, same-day procedure. A small catheter is inserted into a groin or neck vein. A coil is then placed into the catheter and into the varicocele. This blocks blood from getting to the abnormal veins.

Living with a varicocele

Infertility is a common complication of a varicocele. Talk to your doctor about seeing a reproductive specialist if you and your partner are having problems getting pregnant.

Surgery is only necessary if the varicocele is causing you pain or if you’re trying to have a child. Talk to your doctor about which treatment is right for you.


Testicular Ultrasound What You Need to Know

Testicular Ultrasound – What You Need to Know

What is a testicular ultrasound?

A testicular ultrasound is a diagnostic test that obtains images of the testicles and the surrounding tissues in your scrotum. Ultrasound is also called sonography or ultrasound scanning. Your doctor may refer to a testicular ultrasound as a testicular sonogram or scrotal ultrasound.

The two testicles are the primary male reproductive organs. They produce sperm and the male sex hormone testosterone. Your testicles are in your scrotum, which is the fleshy pouch of tissue that hangs under your penis.

An ultrasound is a safe, painless, and non-invasive procedure. The procedure uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of organs inside your body.

An ultrasound uses a probe or transducer. This handheld device converts energy from one form to another. It’s moved against the targeted part of your body in sweeping motions. The transducer emits sound waves as it moves across your body. The transducer then receives the sound waves as they bounce off your organs in a series of echoes. A computer processes the echoes into images on a video monitor. Normal and abnormal tissue transmit different types of echoes. A radiologist can interpret the echoes to distinguish between benign conditions like a collection of fluid around your testicle and a solid mass that could be a malignant tumor.

Why do I need a testicular ultrasound?

A testicular ultrasound is the primary imaging method used to observe and diagnose abnormalities in the testicles. Your doctor may recommend a testicular ultrasound to:

  • verify whether a lump in your scrotum or testicles is solid, which indicates a tumor, or filled with fluid, which indicates a cyst
  • determine the outcome of trauma to your scrotum
  • evaluate for possible testicular torsion, which is a twisted testicle
  • identify sources of pain or swelling in your testicles
  • detect for and evaluate varicoceles, which are varicose spermatic veins
  • assess the causes of infertility
  • find the location of an undescended testicle

Ultrasound echoes can provide real-time still or moving images. Data from moving images is useful in examining blood flow to and from your testicles.

Each testicle connects to the rest of your body by a spermatic cord. This tube contains an artery and a vein. The tube also includes the vas deferens, which carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra. Your doctor can study blood flow in your testicles to find narrowing or blockages interfering with the flow of semen and hindering fertility.

What are the risks involved with a testicular ultrasound?

A testicular ultrasound won’t put you at risk for any health problems. There’s no radiation exposure during the procedure. However, you may have increased pain or discomfort during the procedure if you have certain testicular issues, such as testicular torsion or an infection.

How do I prepare for a testicular ultrasound?

Typically, there’s no special preparation necessary for a testicular ultrasound. There’s no need for dietary restrictions, fasting, or a full bladder before the exam.

Speak with your doctor about any prescription or over-the-counter medications you take. There rarely is a need to interrupt or discontinue medication before a testicular ultrasound.

How is a testicular ultrasound performed?

A testicular ultrasound is usually an outpatient procedure performed in the radiology department of a hospital or at your doctor’s office.

Typically, a testicular ultrasound takes about 20 to 30 minutes. It involves the following steps.


You may need to change into a hospital gown. You won’t typically receive sedatives, anesthesia, or topical numbing agents.


You’ll lie on your back with your legs spread. The ultrasound technician may place a towel underneath your scrotum to keep it elevated. They may place wide strips of tape across your thighs and under your scrotum to elevate your scrotum.

You’ll need to lie completely still during the procedure.

Imaging technique

The technician will apply a warm, water-based gel to your testicles. This gel will allow the transducer to glide over your body. It also facilitates the conduction of the sound waves.

The technician will glide the transducer around your scrotum, moving back and forth. You may feel pressure as the technician pushes it firmly against your body. You may feel discomfort if there’s pressure on an area where you have tenderness due to an abnormality.

The technician will position the transducer against your body from different angles.

After the procedure

The technician will wipe the gel off your body after the procedure.

After your testicular ultrasound, you can resume your normal activities and diet. No recovery time is necessary.

What do the results mean?

A radiologist will analyze the images obtained during your testicular ultrasound. They’ll then send a report detailing the results of the test to your doctor.

If there are abnormal findings on your testicular ultrasound, they may indicate:

  • an infection in your testicle
  • a benign cyst
  • a testicular torsion, which is a twisted spermatic cord restricting blood flow to your testicle
  • a testicular tumor
  • a hydrocele, which is a benign collection of fluid around your testicle
  • a spermatocele, which is a fluid-filled cyst on the ducts of your testicle
  • a varicocele, which is an enlarged vein in the spermatic cord of your testicle

Your doctor will probably recommend further investigation if the testicular ultrasound identifies a tumor.


Scrotal Masses What You Need to Know

Scrotal Masses – What You Need to Know

The sac of skin that contains the testicles is called the scrotum. A scrotal mass is an abnormal bulge or lump inside the scrotum.

A scrotal mass can be a swollen testicle or it can contain fluid or other tissue. It’s possible that the mass could be cancerous, but there are also a number of noncancerous causes of a mass in the scrotum.

Do I have a scrotal mass?

The symptoms you experience will vary depending on the cause of your scrotal mass. In some cases, there aren’t any symptoms other than a mass that you can feel with your fingers.

Other symptoms might include:

  • pain that spreads to your groin, abdomen, or back
  • sudden pain or a dull ache in your scrotum
  • a feeling of heaviness in your scrotum
  • redness of the scrotum
  • a swollen scrotum
  • hard or swollen testicles
  • a swollen, tender epididymis, which is the tube located behind your testicles that stores and transports sperm

If your scrotal mass is the result of an infection, you might have a fever and feel you need to urinate more often. There might also be blood or pus in your urine.

What can cause a scrotal mass?

Many conditions can cause scrotal masses.


Orchitis is inflammation of the testicle. Although orchitis can occur in both testicles simultaneously, it typically only affects one testicle.

Orchitis can be caused by a bacterial or viral infection and is commonly associated with the mumps.


Epididymitis is inflammation of the epididymis.

Most cases of epididymitis are caused by a bacterial infection. In people under 35 years old, epididymitis is most often caused by a sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as chlamydia. Older people are often diagnosed with nonsexually transmitted epididymitis.

There’s also a rare form of the condition known as chemical epididymitis. It can be attributed to urine flowing into the epididymis.


A hydrocele occurs when one of the naturally occurring sacs that surrounds each testicle fills with fluid.

These sacs normally contain only a small amount of fluid. If the fluid collects, swelling can take place.


A hematocele is a type of blood clot that occurs when one of the sacs surrounding each testicle fills with blood. It’s usually associated with trauma or a prior surgery.


A spermatocele occurs when a benign and typically painless cyst develops near one of the testicles. Although spermatoceles are usually harmless, they can get quite large and become bothersome due to their bulk.

Other names for this condition include spermatic cyst and epididymal cyst.


A varicocele is an enlarged vein in your scrotum. Varicoceles mostly affect the left testicle.

They’re usually not symptomatic, but they can cause fullness, pain, aching, or even infertility in some cases.

Inguinal hernia

An inguinal hernia occurs when fatty or intestinal tissue bulges through a weak section of your abdominal wall. It’s also known as a groin hernia.

Testicular torsion

Testicular torsion occurs when the spermatic cord, which connects your penis to your testicles, gets twisted.

Most people with testicular torsion are teens. This condition is painful, rare, and appears to have a genetic component.

Seek immediate medical attention if you experience severe testicle pain. Testicular torsion is a surgical emergency. People who have it need to be brought to the emergency room as soon as possible for repair. If not, then they risk testicular loss.

Testicular cancer

Testicular cancer starts out as abnormal cells in the testicles and can be a potential cause of scrotal masses.

When should I see a doctor about a scrotal mass?

Some causes of scrotal masses don’t require immediate attention. However, it’s generally a good idea to talk with your doctor about any masses in your scrotum.

Other causes of scrotal masses can result in permanent damage to your testicles.

Your doctor can help properly diagnose and treat any masses you find.

Tests that they may perform in order to diagnose your condition include:

  • a physical examination of your testicles
  • testicular ultrasound
  • CT scan
  • transillumination, where they shine a bright light at your testicle in order to better view its underlying structure
  • a tumor marker test, a blood test that helps detect cancer
  • urine or blood tests to look for infection

What can be done to treat the mass?

If your scrotal mass is the result of a bacterial infection, antibiotics will be a part of your treatment. If you have a viral infection, the best course of treatment is rest and pain medication.

In other scenarios, your doctor may simply leave the mass alone, depending on its size.

If the mass is noncancerous and doesn’t cause you severe pain or discomfort, you may not need treatment.

If your mass causes you discomfort, it might be removed. It can be surgically removed or your mass might be drained of fluid as is done for a hydrocele. Testicular torsion is considered a medical emergency and is almost always treated with surgery.

For testicular cancer

If the masses in your scrotum are caused by cancer, speak with a cancer treatment specialist to evaluate whether or not you’re a good candidate for treatment.

Important factors in determining if cancer treatment is right for you are your age, your overall health, and whether the cancer has spread outside of your testicles.

Treatments for cancer include:

  • radical inguinal orchiectomy, which involves the surgical removal of your affected testicle and your spermatic cord
  • radiation therapy to destroy cancer cells that can be left behind after surgery
  • chemotherapy

How can I stop scrotal masses from developing?

You can help prevent scrotal masses caused by STIs by using condoms or other barrier methods during sex. While these methods aren’t 100 percent effective against all STIs, they can help reduce your risk.

Wearing a cup while playing sports will protect your testicles from injury.

Checking your scrotum and testicles for lumps each month can also help you and your doctor detect any problems as early as possible.


Bumps on Your Scrotum What Might They Be and Treatments

Bumps on Your Scrotum – What Might THey Be and Treatments

A bump on your scrotum isn’t usually a serious problem. But some bumps may be a sign of an underlying condition.

We’ll lay out the causes that you shouldn’t be concerned about as well as the ones that might warrant a trip to the doctor. We’ll also review treatment options for each cause.

Here’s a quick overview of potential causes:

Common causesLess common causesRare causes
pimplegenital herpesorchitis
epidermal/sebaceous cysttesticular masstesticular cancer
spermatoceleidiopathic scrotal calcinosis

Possible causes of a bump on the scrotum

Here are some of the possible causes of a bump on your scrotum, including minor conditions and more serious conditions.


Your scrotum has many follicles that contain hairs. These follicles can experience pimples for a number of reasons, including:

  • ingrown hairs
  • pore blockage
  • buildup of dirt and oils from sweating or not bathing regularly

Pimples are easy to spot because of their recognizable symptoms:

  • bumpy, circular shape
  • reddish or discolored appearance
  • oily or greasy surface
  • white pus in the middle of the bumps (whiteheads) or darkened spot where pus has dried out (blackheads)

Pimples are only a minor issue.

Sebaceous cyst

sebaceous cyst happens when air, fluid, or another substance gets trapped inside a sebaceous gland. These glands contain an oil called sebum that helps keep your skin coated and protected.

These cysts are benign and not a cause for concern.


A spermatocele happens when a cyst grows in the epididymis, a tube in each of your testicles that contains fluid and unused sperm. It doesn’t cause any pain, but you can feel a spermatocele as a tiny, firm lump underneath the skin of the scrotum.

Spermatoceles are harmless and can’t become cancerous. They can grow and cause pain, discomfort, and a sensation of swelling in your scrotum.

They also share some symptoms with cancerous testicular masses. See a doctor to get your scrotum examined to make sure the mass isn’t cancerous.


A varicocele happens when a vein in your scrotum becomes enlarged.

This type of vein abnormality only happens in the scrotum, and more commonly in the left side of your scrotum, but varicoceles are a lot like varicose veins that can happen in your leg.

They’re usually not worth worrying about, but some of them can affect your fertility.

Genital herpes

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can result in bumps known as herpetic sores. These sores can become blisters that fill with infected fluid, which oozes out and causes pain when they’re broken open.

There are two types of herpes: HSV-1, the cause of cold sores, and HSV-2, the cause of genital herpes. HSV-2 can be transmitted through any kind of oral, anal, or genital sexual contact not protected by condoms or other barrier methods. It can also be transmitted through any infected spit, semen from the penis, or fluids from the vagina.

Genital herpes can’t be cured, but your doctor may be able to give you treatments that help reduce outbreaks or keep it from spreading.

Genital warts and genital skin tags can also be causes of bumps on the scrotum.

Scrotal or testicular mass

A scrotal mass happens when you have a lump, bulge, or some kind of swelling within your scrotum.

A number of things can cause a scrotal mass, such as swelling from an injury or infection, fluid build-up, or a non-cancerous tumor. Scrotal masses can be cancerous, too, so see your doctor as soon as possible to have the mass examined and diagnosed.


Orchitis happens when your testicles become swollen due to an infection from a virus or bacteria. It typically happens to a single testicle at a time, but it can happen to both.

Here are some common signs of orchitis:

  • swelling or tenderness around your testicles
  • pain when you pee or ejaculate
  • blood in your pee or semen
  • unusual discharge from your penis
  • swelling in the lymph nodes around your groin
  • fever

This condition isn’t necessarily a major cause for concern, but see your doctor to get treatment for any bacterial or viral infections to prevent any complications or damage to your testicles.

Testicular cancer

Testicular cancer can happen to just one or both of your testicles. It usually starts as a small tumor in germ cells that make sperm inside your testicles.

See a doctor right away if you believe you have testicular cancer. The sooner it’s treated, the more likely it can be removed and stopped from spreading.

Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis

Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis (SC) is a rare condition in which large, discolored, lumpy bumps grow on the outside of the scrotum.

These lesions can be anywhere from a millimeter to a few centimeters across. They don’t usually cause any pain or result in any development of cancerous tissue.

See your doctor if you’re concerned about their appearance or to rule out cancer as a cause.

Treatment for bump on scrotum

Here are some treatment options for each of the possible causes of bumps on your scrotum.

For a pimple

  • Cleaning. Wash the pimple every time you bathe and put tea tree oil or castor oil on the pimple to clean it out.
  • Cornstarch. Put a mixture of corn starch and clean water on the pimple to help absorb the oil.
  • Antibacterial cream. Apply an antibacterial cream like Neosporin or ointment on the pimple to kill fungus and bacteria buildup.

For a sebaceous cyst

  • Drainage. A doctor can drain the cyst to keep it from getting larger.
  • Permanent surgical removal. A doctor may cut out the cyst with a scalpel or use a laser to drain the cyst and remove the remains at another appointment.

For a spermatocele

  • Drainage. A doctor may drain the spermatocele with a needle or insert an irritation agent that keeps fluid from building up again.
  • Permanent surgical removal. A doctor may remove the spermatocole with a scalpel or laser techniques.

For a varicocele

  • Surgical clamping or tying off. A doctor may clamp or tie off the affected blood vessel to allow normal blood flow.
  • Inserting a catheter. A doctor may insert a catheter into the affected vessel to allow normal blood flow.

For genital herpes

  • Antiviral medication. A doctor may prescribe antiviral medication to control outbreaks.
  • Regular cleaning during outbreaks. When you bathe, pay particular attention to the scrotum area during outbreaks.

For a testicular mass

  • Pain medication. A doctor may prescribe pain medication for pain and discomfort.
  • Surgical removal. A doctor may remove the mass with a scalpel or laser techniques.
  • Orchiectomy (testicle removal). For severe cases, a doctor may remove the testicle.

For orchitis

  • Antibiotics. A doctor may prescribe antibiotics for bacterial orchitis.
  • Antiviral medication. A doctor may prescribe antiviral medication for viral orchitis.
  • Urine or semen sample. A doctor may ask for a urine or semen sample for an STI diagnosis.

For testicular cancer

  • Surgical removal. A doctor may surgically remove the tumor.
  • Radiation or chemotherapy. A doctor may recommend radiation or chemotherapy to kill the cancer cells.

For scrotal calcinosis

  • Surgical removal. A doctor may surgically remove the lesions.

When to see a doctor

If necessary, a doctor will run imaging tests to look more closely at the bumps. Or, they make take a biopsy (tissue sample) either from the bump or from inside your scrotum to test for the presence of cancerous cells or other infected tissues. They may also ask for a urine or semen sample.

See your doctor right away if you notice any of the following symptoms along with bumps on your scrotum:

  • intense pain or discomfort in your scrotum
  • abnormal discharge from your penis
  • pain when you pee or ejaculate
  • blood in pee or semen
  • nausea
  • throwing up
  • fever
  • chills
  • abnormal weight loss

The takeaway

A bump on your scrotum isn’t usually much to worry about.

But see your doctor if you’re experiencing any uncomfortable, painful, or disruptive symptoms, or if you have any concerns about the bump being cancerous or having long-term complications.


Scrotal Swelling - What You Need to Know

Scrotal Swelling – What You Need to Know

Scrotal swelling is an enlargement of the scrotal sac. The scrotal sac, or scrotum, houses the testicles.

Scrotal swelling can occur due to injury or an underlying medical condition. It may be caused by a buildup of fluid, inflammation, or an abnormal growth within the scrotum.

The swelling may be painless or very painful. If the swelling is painful, seek emergency treatment. In severe cases and depending on the cause, not receiving timely treatment can result in the loss of your testicles due to the death of tissue.

What causes scrotal swelling?

Scrotal swelling can happen rapidly or slowly over time. One of the main causes of painful scrotal swelling is testicular torsion. This is an injury or an event that causes a testicle in the scrotal sac to twist and cut off blood circulation. This very painful injury could cause tissue death to the scrotum in a matter of hours.

Medical conditions and diseases can also cause the scrotum to swell. These conditions include:

  • trauma
  • testicular cancer
  • abnormally enlarged veins in the scrotum
  • acute inflammation of the testes, called orchitis
  • swelling due to increased fluid, called hydrocele
  • hernia
  • inflammation or infection in the epididymis, called epididymitis
  • congestive heart failure
  • inflammation or infection of the scrotal skin

Other symptoms related to these conditions may be present before scrotal swelling.

Signs of scrotum swelling

In addition to a visible enlargement of the scrotal sac, you may have additional symptoms. The symptoms you experience will depend on the cause of the swelling.

Common symptoms that may be experienced alongside scrotal swelling include a lump in the testicle and pain in the testicles or scrotum.

Contact your doctor if you notice either of these symptoms.

Identifying the cause

Mention to your doctor any symptoms you’re experiencing with the scrotal swelling. Let them know if your scrotum is painful or contains a lump. After gathering this information, your doctor will perform a physical examination.

The examination will include a physical inspection of the scrotum. At this point, they will ask when you noticed the swelling and what activities you were doing before the swelling.

If necessary, the doctor may perform a scrotal ultrasound to view the inside of the scrotum. This imaging test will let them see if there are any abnormalities within the scrotal sac.

Treatment options for scrotal swelling

Treatment options for scrotal swelling depend on the cause. If an infection caused the swelling, your doctor will prescribe antibiotics to fight the infection. If oral antibiotics don’t work, you may have to receive intramuscular antibiotics or be hospitalized for IV antibiotics.

Treatment of an underlying medical condition that is linked to your symptoms is important in your recovery. Your doctor can prescribe medications to help you manage your pain and may recommend a supportive garment to ease pain and swelling. Surgery may be necessary to correct the condition if the underlying cause is varicocele, hernia, or hydrocele.

Testicular cancer has several treatment options, which will depend on the severity of the cancer. Whether the cancer has spread and how long it went undetected will determine your treatment, which normally consists of the following:

  • chemotherapy
  • radiation therapy
  • surgery, which involves removing cancerous tissue and cancerous tumors from the scrotal sac

Home treatment

In addition to receiving care from your doctor, they may suggest at-home treatment options, including:

  • using ice on the scrotum to relieve swelling, normally within the first 24 hours of noticing the swelling
  • taking an over-the-counter pain reliever
  • wearing athletic support
  • using a sitz or shallow bath to reduce swelling
  • avoiding strenuous activities


The outlook for scrotal swelling varies depending on the severity of the swelling and the cause. Swelling due to injury will generally pass with time, while other causes require extensive treatment. With early diagnosis and proper treatment, the outlook is generally good.


Testicular Cancer - Can a Pregnancy Test Detect It

Testicular Cancer – Can a Home Pregnancy Test Detect It?

Testicular cancer is when cancerous cells develop in the testicles. According to the American Cancer Society, it’s a relatively uncommon cancer. Only about 1 in 250 men (0.4 percent) will develop it at some point during their life.

You may have seen social media posts about using a home pregnancy test to detect testicular cancer. While this is technically possible, it’s not a medically sound way to test for cancer — and there are even some ways it can cause harm.

Keep reading to learn more about why people are using pregnancy tests for testicular cancer if there’s any truth to this method, and what to do if you suspect you may have testicular cancer.

Why are people using pregnancy tests for testicular cancer?

The use of a home pregnancy test to detect testicular cancer goes back to a social media post from several years ago. In it, the poster described his male friend’s positive pregnancy test.

Various comments urged the poster to tell his friend to see a doctor, as a positive pregnancy test in a male could be a sign of testicular cancer. After visiting a doctor, it did turn out that the test-taker had a small testicular tumor.

The rationale behind this is that testicular tumors can lead to an increase in a hormone called human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). This is the same hormone that’s detected by home pregnancy tests.

Therefore, if a male uses a home pregnancy test and receives a positive result, it means extra hCG has been detected in the urine.

However, this is in no way a diagnosis. It should prompt a doctor’s visit for further testing.

Can pregnancy tests actually detect testicular cancer?

Testicular cancer is associated with elevated levels of certain markers, including hCG. The common diagnostic tests for testicular cancer work to detect these markers in a person’s blood.

Cancer markers can also be present in urine. Because of this, it’s technically possible for a home pregnancy test to detect testicular cancer.

The idea of using a home pregnancy test to detect testicular cancer isn’t new. In fact, the use of a urine pregnancy test for testicular cancer screening has been reported as early as the mid-1980s.

Since then, various publications have mentioned using urine pregnancy tests as a screening method. This is particularly true when the materials and equipment aren’t on hand to do blood tests for hCG and other testicular cancer markers.

But it never became a widespread practice and for good reason (more on that below).

What are the potential downsides of using a pregnancy test to detect testicular cancer?

While it’s possible for a home pregnancy test to detect hCG levels related to testicular cancer, there are some very important drawbacks to know about using this testing method.

Let’s explore these in the context of both a negative and a positive test result.

Negative result

A negative result on a home pregnancy test doesn’t mean you don’t have testicular cancer. This is because not all testicular cancers will produce elevated levels of hCG or other cancer markers.

It’s possible to have a testicular tumor and receive a negative result on a home pregnancy test. A negative home pregnancy test can provide a false sense of security, delaying diagnosis and treatment.

If you’re concerned about testicular cancer, it’s very important to see a doctor for screening, and not rely on the results of a home pregnancy test.

Positive result

There are several things that can interfere with home pregnancy tests and lead to a false-positive result. Some examples include:

  • protein in the urine (proteinuria)
  • blood in the urine (hematuria)
  • certain types of medications, such as:
    • antiseizure medications
    • anxiety medications
    • methadone

Getting a positive result on a home pregnancy test may cause unnecessary levels of stress, as well as unnecessary visits to your doctor.

It’s also important to point out that other types of cancer, such as those of the stomach and lung, have been documented to produce hCG. In this rare scenario, a positive result could indicate a type of cancer other than testicular cancer.

When to seek medical care

The outlook for testicular cancer improves with early diagnosis and treatment. Because of this, it’s very important to seek medical evaluation if you have any signs or symptoms of testicular cancer.

Some things to look out for include:

  • a lump or swelling in your testicle, which is usually painless
  • dull pain that’s localized to the lower abdomen or scrotum
  • a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum

Performing a testicular self-exam once a month can help you know what’s normal for your testicles. As such, it can help you identify any noticeable changes that may be associated with testicular cancer.

The takeaway

Home pregnancy tests are not a reliable way to detect testicular cancer. The idea came about because hCG — the hormone that’s detected on a pregnancy test — can be at elevated levels in testicular cancer.

However, not all testicular cancers produce increased levels of hCG, making a negative result misleading. On the other hand, the presence of blood or protein in the urine as well as the use of certain medications can lead to a false-positive result.

Overall, a home pregnancy test may not be useful for detecting testicular cancer. If you have symptoms of testicular cancer, it’s important to see a doctor for further testing rather than relying on a home pregnancy test.


What's the average testicle size

What’s the Average Testicle Size?

The testicles produce the primary male sex hormone testosterone, as well as sperm. The average size of a man testicle is about 4 x 3 x 2 centimeters (cm) in size and is oval-shaped. Most men have two testicles, also known as testes. It’s common for one of a man’s testicles to be a different size than the other testicle. Testicles reside in the scrotum, attached at each end to the spermatic cord.

Does size matter?

Healthy production of testosterone and sperm can occur within a wide range of testicular volume. Some studies have suggested that larger testicles among some mammals are associated with higher testosterone levels, while smaller testicular volume is associated with decreased sperm production.

Testosterone levels can become a concern if you have a condition such as Klinefelter syndrome, which results from having an extra X chromosome. Symptoms of this condition include smaller testes or undescended testes, and some female characteristics, such as less body and facial hair, and breast tissue growth. Having Klinefelter syndrome usually means having lower testosterone levels and reduced sperm activity. Infertility can result.

The clinical term for abnormally low testosterone is hypogonadism. Symptoms may include:

  • smaller-than-average testicles
  • breast tissue growth
  • less body or facial hair than male peers
  • other signs similar to those of Klinefelter syndrome

Hypogonadism is often treated with testosterone replacement therapy, and it can sometimes begin during puberty.

2013 study found that slightly smaller testicles were associated with a more nurturing quality among fathers. Reduced testosterone levels and testes volume were associated with higher levels of paternal caregiving.

If you notice swelling of your testicles, tell your doctor. Growing larger testes in adulthood can signal testicular cancer or another health problem, rather than be a sign of increasing virility.

When do testicles start and stop growing?

A male’s testicle is about 1 cubic centimeter at birth and stays around that size until the testicles start growing about age 8. Then they grow steadily, reaching their adult size sometime during puberty. It’s also during puberty that hair starts to grow on the scrotum and around the genitals.

Testicles tend to grow at the same rate, though one may grow slightly larger and for a little longer than the other. It’s also common for one testicle to hang a little lower than the other.

Can testicles shrink?

As you age, testosterone production tends to drop as your testicles start to get smaller. This is known as testicular atrophy. The change is often gradual and may not be especially noticeable. When it occurs naturally, there is no health threat. Lower testosterone levels can lead to a reduced libido and less muscle mass, but these tend to be natural parts of aging.

Certain health problems can also cause testicular atrophy, including:

  • sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea and syphilis
  • mumps, tuberculosis, and certain viral infections of the testicles
  • blunt trauma to the testes

Other, harmless factors can also cause temporary changes in the scrotum and testicles. Cold temperatures, in particular, can cause “shrinkage,” though this has no impact on the size of the testicles themselves.

When exposed to cold water or temperatures, the testicles may temporarily retract closer to the body through a mechanism called cremasteric retraction. This occurs because the testicles try to maintain a certain temperature that is ideal for sperm production. That temperature is slightly cooler than average body temperature, which is why the testicles tend to hang down away from the body. But when exposed to cold water or cold temperatures, the cremaster muscle kicks in, pulling the testicles up into the body for warmth.

Is it normal for one testicle to be smaller than my other testicle?

It’s very common for one testicle to be slightly larger than the other. There is usually no medical or health explanation for a size difference.

However, if you notice a change in the size or shape of one or both testicles, you should tell your doctor. If one testicle starts to feel heavier or you feel a lump or a change of shape, it could be a tumor and possibly the first sign of testicular cancer. This form of cancer is often treated successfully, but an early diagnosis is critical. Testicular cancer or testicular torsion, which is a twisting of the spermatic cord that causes pain and swelling, should be evaluated and treated by a doctor soon after symptoms develop.

Testicle health

Regardless of the size of your testicles, you should perform monthly testicular self-examinations to check for lumps or other changes that might indicate disease. A self-exam can be done after a shower or before you get dressed in the morning.

To do a self-exam, take a minute to gently roll your testicles between your thumb and fingers to feel for any changes in their size, shape, or hardness. Doing this in front of a mirror may help you see what you’re doing. If you experience any pain during a gentle exam or you notice a suspicious lump, swelling, or other change, see your doctor soon. Such changes could suggest testicular cancer or an infection.

You may discuss changes to your testicles with your primary care physician or you can make an appointment to see a urologist. A urologist is a doctor who specializes in the health of the male reproductive system and the urinary tract. Don’t wait to see your doctor. Testicular cancer is usually treated by surgically removing the cancerous testicle, but when caught early, the other testicle is usually spared.


The health and function of your genitalia is more important than size. If you feel that your testicles are too small or you have other symptoms that concern you, like low libido, excessive breast tissue, or infertility, talk with your doctor. Testosterone therapy can often help. If sperm production is affected, there are fertility specialists who may be able to help you and your partner conceive a child.


Testicular Ultrasound - What You Need to Know

Testicular Ultrasound – What You Need to Know

What is a testicular ultrasound?

A testicular ultrasound is a diagnostic test that obtains images of the testicles and the surrounding tissues in your scrotum. Ultrasound is also called sonography or ultrasound scanning. Your doctor may refer to a testicular ultrasound as a testicular sonogram or scrotal ultrasound.

The two testicles are the primary male reproductive organs. They produce sperm and the male sex hormone testosterone. Your testicles are in your scrotum, which is the fleshy pouch of tissue that hangs under your penis.

An ultrasound is a safe, painless, and noninvasive procedure. The procedure uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of organs inside your body.

An ultrasound uses a probe or transducer. This handheld device converts energy from one form to another. It’s moved against the targeted part of your body in sweeping motions. The transducer emits sound waves as it moves across your body. The transducer then receives the sound waves as they bounce off your organs in a series of echoes. A computer processes the echoes into images on a video monitor. Normal and abnormal tissue transmit different types of echoes. A radiologist can interpret the echoes to distinguish between benign condition like a collection of fluid around your testicle and a solid mass that could be a malignant tumor.

Why do I need a testicular ultrasound?

A testicular ultrasound is the primary imaging method used to observe and diagnose abnormalities in the testicles. Your doctor may recommend a testicular ultrasound to:

  • verify whether a lump in your scrotum or testicles is solid, which indicates a tumor, or filled with fluid, which indicates a cyst
  • determine the outcome of trauma to your scrotum
  • evaluate for possible testicular torsion, which is a twisted testicle
  • identify sources of pain or swelling in your testicles
  • detect for and evaluate varicoceles, which are varicose spermatic veins
  • assess the causes of infertility
  • find the location of an undescended testicle

Ultrasound echoes can provide real-time still or moving images. Data from moving images is useful in examining blood flow to and from your testicles.

Each testicle connects to the rest of your body by a spermatic cord. This tube contains an artery and a vein. The tube also includes the vas deferens, which carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra. Your doctor can study blood flow in your testicles to find narrowing or blockages interfering with the flow of semen and hindering fertility.

What are the risks involved with a testicular ultrasound?

A testicular ultrasound won’t put you at risk for any health problems. There’s no radiation exposure during the procedure. However, you may have increased pain or discomfort during the procedure if you have certain testicular issues, such as testicular torsion or an infection.

How do I prepare for a testicular ultrasound?

Typically, there’s no special preparation necessary for a testicular ultrasound. There’s no need for dietary restrictions, fasting, or a full bladder before the exam.

Speak with your doctor about any prescription or over-the-counter medications you take. There rarely is a need to interrupt or discontinue medication before a testicular ultrasound.

How is a testicular ultrasound performed?

A testicular ultrasound is usually an outpatient procedure performed in the radiology department of a hospital or at your doctor’s office.

Typically, a testicular ultrasound takes about 20 to 30 minutes. It involves the following steps.


You may need to change into a hospital gown. You won’t typically receive sedatives, anesthesia, or topical numbing agents.


You’ll lie on your back with your legs spread. The ultrasound technician may place a towel underneath your scrotum to keep it elevated. They may place wide strips of tape across your thighs and under your scrotum to elevate your scrotum.

You’ll need to lie completely still during the procedure.

Imaging technique

The technician will apply a warm, water-based gel to your testicles. This gel will allow the transducer to glide over your body. It also facilitates the conduction of the sound waves.

The technician will glide the transducer around your scrotum, moving back and forth. You may feel pressure as the technician pushes it firmly against your body. You may feel discomfort if there’s pressure on an area where you have tenderness due to an abnormality.

The technician will position the transducer against your body from different angles.

After the procedure

The technician will wipe the gel off your body after the procedure.

After your testicular ultrasound, you can resume your normal activities and diet. No recovery time is necessary.

What do the results mean?

A radiologist will analyze the images obtained during your testicular ultrasound. They’ll then send a report detailing the results of the test to your doctor.

If there are abnormal findings on your testicular ultrasound, they may indicate:

  • an infection in your testicle
  • a benign cyst
  • a testicular torsion, which is a twisted spermatic cord restricting blood flow to your testicle
  • a testicular tumor
  • a hydrocele, which is a benign collection of fluid around your testicle
  • a spermatocele, which is a fluid-filled cyst on the ducts of your testicle
  • a varicocele, which is an enlarged vein in the spermatic cord of your testicle

Your doctor will probably recommend further investigation if the testicular ultrasound identifies a tumor.


Testicle Biopsy - What You Need to Know

Testicle Biopsy – What you Need to Know

What is a Testicular Biopsy?

A testicular biopsy takes a tissue sample from your testicle for laboratory analysis.

The two testicles are the male reproductive organs. They produce sperm and the male sex hormone testosterone. Your testicles are located in your scrotum, which is the fleshy pouch of tissue that hangs under your penis.

A testicular biopsy can be used to:

  • diagnose the location and condition of a lump in the testes
  • diagnose causes of male infertility
  • obtain sperm for in vitro fertilization (IVF)

There are two different procedures for a testicular biopsy.

Percutaneous Biopsy

With a percutaneous biopsy, a thin biopsy needle is inserted through the skin. The needle has a syringe on the end to collect the testicular tissue. This procedure does not require an incision or stitches. It also is called a fine needle biopsy.

A core needle biopsy is a variation on this technique. It uses a hollow, spring-loaded needle to extract a cylinder of cells. This is called a core sample. A core sample is a larger specimen than one from a fine needle biopsy.

Open Biopsy

An open biopsy is also called a surgical biopsy. Your doctor starts by making a cut in the skin. A cut also is made in the testicle. Then a small tissue sample is taken from the opening and stitches are used to close the cuts.

Diagnostic Uses of a Testicular Biopsy

A testicular biopsy is an important tool in diagnosing male infertility. However, it is not the first step. For the initial phase in a fertility evaluation, your doctor will take a health history and order blood tests and a semen analysis.

Semen analysis looks at the quantity and quality of your sperm. The initial semen sample is usually obtained by masturbation.

Semen analysis can identify the following problems:

  • abnormally low levels of sperm
  • poor quality of sperm
  • azoospermia (absence of sperm)

Blood and hormone tests often can identify the causes of low sperm levels. However, when these tests are not conclusive, you may need a testicular biopsy.

A testicular biopsy may be used to:

  • determine whether sperm production problems are caused by a blockage
  • retrieve sperm for use in IVF. This is done if sperm are being made in the testicles but are not present in the semen.
  • diagnose testicular cancer
  • determine the cause of a lump in the testicles

Preparation for a Testicular Biopsy

The preparations required for this test are minimal.

Tell your physician about any prescription or over-the-counter medications you are taking. Discuss whether these medications should be used before and during the test.

Certain drugs may pose a special risk during the procedure. These include:

  • anticoagulants (blood thinners)
  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin or ibuprofen
  • any medications that affect blood clotting

If you are receiving general anesthesia, you will need to fast from food and drink for at least eight hours before your test. If you are given a sedative to take at home before the biopsy, you will not be able to drive yourself to the procedure.

Administration of a Testicular Biopsy

A testicular biopsy is usually an outpatient procedure. It may be performed at your doctor’s office or a hospital.

The biopsy typically takes about 15 to 20 minutes. It is performed by a doctor or another trained health professional.

You may be offered a sedative to help you relax for the test. Since you have to stay completely still, some doctors prefer to use general anesthesia instead. With either medication, the biopsy technique remains the same.

You will be asked to lie on your back and the scrotum will be cleaned to remove bacteria. An injection of local anesthesia will numb the skin of the scrotum. You may feel a slight sting.

Open Biopsy

If you are having an open biopsy, the following procedure is typical:

  1. Your physician will make a small incision through the skin.
  2. A tiny, pea-sized amount of testicular tissue is removed.
  3. When the biopsy is taken, you will feel pressure or minor discomfort. You should not feel pain.
  4. Typically, one absorbable stitch closes the cut in the testicle. Another stitch closes your skin. Stitch removal is not necessary.
  5. The same technique is done on the second testicle.

Percutaneous Biopsy

The procedure for a percutaneous biopsy will depend on the type of needle used — a core needle or a fine needle.

  • In both cases, a needle is inserted through the skin of the testicle.
  • If you are having a core needle biopsy, you will hear a loud clicking or popping sound when the tissue sample is being extracted.
  • If you are having a fine needle biopsy, the tissue sample will be drawn out with a syringe.
  • The same technique is done on the second testicle.

Diagnosing Testicular Cancer

Testicular biopsy is rarely used to diagnose testicular cancer. Typically, it is performed when the diagnosis is uncertain. This is because a biopsy, unfortunately, increases the likelihood the cancer will spread.

Your physician is more likely to use ultrasound for cancer diagnosis. Your testicle can also be examined and removed through open surgery. This is called a radical inguinal orchiectomy.

A radical inguinal orchiectomy to diagnose cancer includes the following steps:

  1. Your physician will make a cut in your groin.
  2. The testicles will be removed from the scrotum and examined.
  3. If abnormal tissue is found, a small portion will be taken for analysis.
  4. A pathologist will examine the tissue. This will be done immediately, while you wait.
  5. If the tissue sample is benign (noncancerous), the testicle will be returned to the scrotum.
  6. If the tissue sample is malignant (cancerous), the testicle will be removed. The spermatic cord will be removed as well. This prevents the spread of cancer cells to the rest of the body.

Recovery from a Testicular Biopsy

After your testicular biopsy, you will receive special instructions to help you heal and remain comfortable. Instructions will vary depending on the type of biopsy.

You may be advised to:

  • refrain from sexual activity for one to two weeks
  • wear an athletic supporter for several days
  • keep the site of the biopsy dry, and avoid washing it for several days
  • avoid aspirin for one week
  • use acetaminophen for soreness

It is normal to have swelling, discoloration, and discomfort for a few days. A small amount of bleeding is also common. Your doctor may also warn you about other routine side effects that are procedure-dependent.

Risks of a Testicular Biopsy

A testicular biopsy can help your doctor resolve your infertility problems. It does not carry a risk of erection or fertility problems after the procedure.

Prolonged bleeding and post-procedure infection are two potentially serious risks. However, they are rare. Contact your physician if you experience:

  • bleeding that soaks the bandage at the biopsy site
  • hematoma (a collection of blood under the skin)
  • severe pain or swelling of the scrotum
  • fever or chills

Another possible risk is internal damage to the testicles or nearby areas. This is rare.

Interpreting the Results of a Testicular Biopsy

Your tissue sample will be analyzed under a microscope. The pathologist will identify any defects in sperm production or development.

Your results may show normal sperm development. If you previously had a low or zero sperm count, an obstruction may be the cause of your infertility.

Blockages in the vas deferens have been shown to cause this type of infertility. The vas deferens is the tube that carries sperm from the testicles to the urethra. Surgery may be able to correct the problem.

Additional causes of abnormal results include:

  • spermatocele: a fluid-filled cyst on the ducts of the testicles
  • orchitis: a swelling of the testicles caused by an infection
  • testicular cancer